Flashcards in Lecture 7: Learning operant Deck (35):
What is learning?
Any enduring change in the way an organism responses based on its experience
What are the 2 different ways of learning?
Classical and operant conditioning
What is classical conditioning?
The learning of a new association between two previously unrelated stimuli
We learn that a stimulus predicts a certain event and we respond accordingly
All responses are reflexes
Who discovered classical conditioning?
Ivan P. Pavlov
Nobel prize for research in medical physiology
How is a behaviour elicited in classical conditioning?
It becomes elicited by a previously neutral stimulus that has acquired it's power through an association with a biologically significant stimulus
What is classical conditioning the study of?
Reflexes or autonomic responses
What is the unconditioned stimulus?
Any stimulus that naturally elicits a behaviour
What is the unconditioned response?
The behaviour elicited by the unconditioned stimulus
What is the conditioned stimulus?
A neutral stimulus that is able to elicit behaviour only after association with the unconditioned stimulus
What is the conditioned response?
The behaviour elicits to the conditioned stimulus
In the example of pavlov's dogs with the tone, what is the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR before, during and after conditioning?
UCS = food, UCR = salivation
CS = tone, No response or irrelevant response
CS = tone, followed by UCS (=food), elicits UCR (=salivation)
CS = tone, CR= salivation
What is acquisition?
Process by which the conditioned response is first elicited
Timing is critical!!!
What are the 5 processes of conditioning?
What are the 4 types of conditioning in classical conditioning
What is trace conditioning?
The onset of the conditioned stimulus precedes the onset of the unconditioned stimulus and the tone goes off before he food powder begins
What is delay conditioning
CS comes on and stays on for a period of time before the US is presented.
What is backward conditioning?
The onset of the unconditioned stimulus precedes the onset of the conditioned stimulus
What is extinction?
Where after a period of times the link ( between CS and UCR) is broken this results in weakening of the conditioned response
E.g. Child stops throwing tantrums when their parents ignore the bad behaviour
What is Simultaneous conditioning?
The conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus occur at the sametime
What is spontaneous recovery?
Sudden reappearance of conditioned response after a rest period without further exposure to the UCS
What is stimulus generalisation?
Automatic extension of conditioned response to similar stimuli e.g. Little Albert scared of everything furry
What is stimuli discrimination?
Learning to respond differently to stimuli that differ from the conditioned stimulus
What is shaping?
A procedure which a complex behaviour is trained/taught by reinforcing closer and closer approximations of the desired response
E.g. Progressively training a dog to fetch the paper used to train animals to assist the disabled
What are the reinforcement contingencies for behaviour modification and behavioural therapy?
How can you DEFINE the behaviour that you would like to reinforce or eliminate?
How can you define the CONTEXTS in which a behave is appropriate or inappropriate?
Have you unknowingly been REINFORCING some behaviours?
What are the schedules of reinforcement?
Continuous reinforcement - reinforcer is obtained after EVERY response
Intermittent/partial reinforcement - reinforcer is NOT obtained for every response
Ratio - fixed ratio: reinforced in fixed amount e.g. Every 3rd response, commission, brief pauses
Variable ratio: on average, reinforced every 3rd response, e.g. Slot machines, (but not always on the 3rd), no pauses
Interval- fixed interval: reinforced after a fixed time period has elapsed. Few responses after each reinforcer is delivered
variable interval: reinforced after an average time period has elapsed. Responding occurs a a constant rate
What are the consequences of behaviour
Reinforcement and punishment
What is reinforcement?
An environmentally stimulus that occurs after behaviour and increases the likelihood that the behaviour will occur in the future
What are the positive and negative reinforcements?
+ the presentation of a pleasant stimulus after behaviour
- the removal of an averse stimulus after a behaviour
What is a punishment?
An environmental stimulus that occurs after behaviour and decreases the likelihood that the behaviour will occur in the future
What are positive and negative punishments?
+ the presentation of an averse stimulus after a behaviour
- the removal of a pleasant stimulus after behaviour
What is operant conditioning?
The lower of a stimulus to evoke a response is
strengthened when the response is followed by a reward and weakened when it is not followed by a reward
What is a reinforcement contingency?
A consistent relationship between a response and the changes in the environment that it produces
What are the types of reinforces?
Primary reinforces- biologically determined
Secondary reinforces- token economy, money, clickers
What are important component of reinforces?
Consistency and repetition of reinforcement