Flashcards in Lecture 9: Sleep And Biological Rhythms Deck (19)
What are some reasons we need to sleep?
Resulting of synaptic populations
Maximising adaptation to the environment
What are some recent discoveries on sleep and the brain?
Sleep improves procedural memory - tasks requiring practice and repetition
Also improves problem solving skills and pruning and strengthening of circuits that promotes learning new things and reinforcing old ones
What is the result of sleep deprivation on junior doctors?
Impaired performance tests on vigilance
Impaired serial mathematical calculations
Impaired Verbal processing, complex problem solving
Significant decrements in procedural skills post call among surgical trainees
Worsening of stimulated intubation tasks among ED trainees
What are the two types of sleep?
REM (rapid eye movement)
What are the 4 factor to be considered when diagnosing sleep disorders?
What is actigraphy?
A non invasive method of monitoring human rest and activity cycles
The small actigraph unit is worn often under the wrist by the patient to measure gross motor activity
Movement is recorded and the data can be read by a computer and analysed
What is a polysomnography?
A type of sleep test which is multi parametric. The test result is called a polysomnograph.
Many body functions are monitored including the brain (EEG), eye movements (EOG), muscle activity (EMG) and heart rhythm (ECG)
Respiratory airflow and effort were also later added
When do dreams usually occur?
Mostly during REM sleep
What are some reasons for dreaming?
Erasing theory, (dreams are a way of dumping the information we dont need during the day)
filing theory (dreams are a way of storing the information we don't need during the day)
How often does REM sleep occur ?
5 times a night, totalling about 2 hours
What are some effects of total sleep deprivation?
Death 11-32 days without sleeping
Skin lesions on tails/paws
Increased food intake
20% weight loss
Increased energy expenditure (1.9x increase in energy use)
Decreased body temperature terminally
What are some components of sleep history?
Total sleep time
Quality of sleep
Long term pattern
Sleepiness during the day
What are some countermeasures for sleep deprivation/fatigue
Sleep 2-8 hours before 24 hour shift
15 min nap every 2-3 hour intervals
Sometimes more than 2 hour naps can worsen the sleep inertia
What are the three types of sleep problems?
Insomnia (difficulty sleeping)
Excessive day time sleepiness
Parasomnia (abnormal actions while sleeping)
What is insomnia? What are its symptoms?
Can have primary insomnia,
secondary insomnia - due to substances, psychiatric, medical, neurological condition
Can have circadian rhythm problems
Shift work sleep disorder
What is excessive daytime sleepiness?
A difficulty in maintaining desired wakefulness
Falling asleep at inappropriate times
Excessive amount of sleep
Sleep apnoea, narcolepsy/sleep attacks, idiopathic hypersomnia, substances, circadian rhythm disorder, sleep deprivation
What is parasomnia?
abnormal actions while sleeping
sleepwalking, eating, talking (somniloquy), REM behaviour disorders, periodic limb movements, restless legs, bruxism
How can sleep disorders be managed?
multi-model approach (targeting psychological, beahvioural and biological factors)
cognivitve behavrioual teatment for insomnia
continuous positive airway pressure