Flashcards in Lecture 8: Social Learning And Behaviour Deck (40)
What is cognition?
The mental processes involved in acquiring, representing and processing knowledge (thinking, remembering, perceiving and communicating)
What is cognition characterised by?
Individual differences in perception
Subjective interpretation of ones environment and relationships
What is the relationship between cognition and learning?
People actively think about behaviour and outcomes
We are able to detect the contingencies
Learning is not automatic or mindless, it has a cognitive component to it
What is observational learning?
Not a separate form of conditioning, but extends operant and classical conditioning.
Where learning takes place vicariously through observing others' (model) conditioning
What does the invitation of a models behaviour depend on?
Prestige of the model
Likeability and attractiveness of the model
Whether the model was rewarded or punished for their behaviour
What are the basic processes in observational learning?
What are some applications of observational learning?
Treatment of phobias
Behavioural intervention programmes (modelling)
Modelling medical procedures (diabetes)
Motor skill learning (sports coaching)
Describe maslow's theory of hierarchical need
Biological: need for food, water, oxygen, rest, sexual expression, release from tension
Safety: need for security comfort, tranquility, freedom from fear
Attachment: need to belong, to affiliate, to love and be loved
Esteem: need for confidence, sense of worth and competence, self esteem and respect of others
Self actualisation: need to fulfil potential, have meaningful goals
What are the issues for personal achievement?
How we define our need for achievement
A basic need to strive for achievement and how we do so
What did David McClelland find..
Attributions for success and failure consists of:
Judgements about the causes of outcomes
Locus of control orientations (internal vs. external)
Stability / instability over time
Global vs. specific
Why must we accentuate the positive and eliminate the negative and don't mess with mister in between?
When you cannot control your environment you become anxious and it impacts on your ability to learn - particularly for children
What does cognitive social theory state?
We form expectations about the consequences of our behaviours
What is locus control?
The expectancy as to whether or not fate determines outcomes in life
Internal- belief that own actions determine our fate
External- belief that our lives are governed by forces outside our control or by people more powerful than ourselves
What are people who associate failure with internal causes more at risk of?
What are people who see their health as under their own cool more likely to do?
Practice good health care habits
What is learned helplessness.
An expectancy that one cannot escape aversive events
What are the deficits in learned helplessness?
Motivational- slow to initiate known actions
Emotional- appears rigid, lifeless, frightened and depressed
Cognitive- demonstrates poor learning in new situations
What is the effect of inescapable shock on avoidance learning?
There were a higher % of dogs learning the avoidance response under control than those whom were shocked
How is learned helplessness related to depression?
An individuals explanatory style can determine whether they develop depression during aversive events
E.g. Optimistic style = health, credits success to internal factors, fables to external factors, confident for success
Pessimistic style= unhealthy, credits success to Effexor or luck and failure to lack of ability. Low expectation of success
What is self efficacy?
The beef that one can perform adequately in a particular situation
What influences self efficacy?
What is attribution theory?
A social cognitive approach to describing how we use information to infer other people's mental states and explain our behaviour
What are external or situational attributions?
Behaviour is due to the situation e.g. The boss yelled at me because this is April 15 and the taxes are not done
What are internal or dispositional attributions?
Behaviour reflects the person e.g. He boss yells at everyone because he is a hostile person
What is the covariation principle?
People attribute a behaviour to a causal factor if that factor was present whenever the behaviour occurred and was absent whenever it didn't
What is the covariation principle opposite to?
What are the three things to do with the covariation principle ?
Distinctiveness- specificity of a behaviour to a particular situation
Consistency - repetitivity of behaviour in response to this situation
Consensus - do other people behave this way in the same situation?
What are the two man errors of attribution?
Fundamental attribution error and self serving bias
What is fundamental attribution error?
A dual tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of external factors and to overestimate the impact of internal factors
E.g Cultural bias: western cultures favour internal or dispositional factors when making attributions whereas collectivist cultures favour external or situational factors when making attributions