Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (23):
What is EA?
A process designed to identify the potential environmental impacts of a project or action. used to help countries work towards more sustainable development
What is sustainable development?
Develoment that meets the needs of todays generation without compromising those of future generation
What are the 2 basic steps of EA?
1. Impact identification
2. Impact Avoidance/ mitigation
Is EA technical or political?
When was EA introduced?
In 1969 it was introduced as the US National Environmental Policy- motivated by public concern regrding the quality of the environment and the lack of environmental and social considerations in the decision making process for major projects
What did the 2002 Earth Summit result in?
3 major agreements focused on changing traditional thoughts and approaches to development
and 2 legally binding conventions to prevent global climate chnge and the destruction of biodiversity
What did Agenda 21 state?
Set of principles providing gudance on acheiving sustainable development.
(Nations are not legally obligated to comply wiht it)
What did the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development state?
Principles suporting agenda 21, defines the responsibilities and rights of States with respect to achieving sustainable development
What did the statement of forest principles outline?
underlying set of principles for worldwide sustainable forest management
What did the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change State?
Legally binding international convention to stabalize greenhouse gas emissions and concentrations in the atmosphere
What did the Convention on Biodiversity state?
Legally binding international convention to conserve biology
What is a short term goal of EA?
To inform decision makers of the potentially significant environmental effects and risks associated with development proposals
-Improve environmental design of projects
-Resource use is efficient and appropriate
-id appropriate measures for mitigating impacts
-facilitating informed decision-making
What are long-term objectives for EA?
-Protecting human health and safety
-Avoiding irreversible changes and serious environmental damage
-Safeguard calued resources, ecosystem components, and natural areas
- enhancing the social aspects of the proposal
What are the 3 core values of EA?
Integrity, Utility and Sustainability
What is EA integrity?
The process should meet internationally accepted requirements and standards of practice
What is EA Utility?
Process should provid the info which is sufficient and relevant for decision making
What is EA sustainability?
proces should result in the implementation of environmental measure that are sufficient to avoid the irreversible loss of resource and ecosystem function, as well as mitigate serious adverse effects
What are some targets of good EA practice?
-Screens out projects with unacceptable environmental risks
-Allows for the design of feasible projects to be modified in order to reduce thier impact
-identifies the best, practical envr option
-Predicts, with accuracy, the significant adverse effects of proposals
-identifies mitigation measures that successfully avoid, reduce and offset major impacts
-results in environmental benefits and gains relative to other options
What are principles of good EA practice?
purposive, rigorous, practical, relevant, cost-effective, efficient, focused, adaptive, participative, interdisciplinary, credible, integrated, transparent, and systematic
What are some benefits of EA?
-Better environmental and human health protection
- Improved environmental planning and project design
-Better compliance with environmental standards
-increased project acceptance
-reduced time and cost associated with gaining approvals
What are some costs of EA?
CAn be expressed monetarily or in terms of project schedule or time.
- EA cost estimations can be difficult with extensive investigations and reporting
- EA can cause excessive delays to the project
What are some Limitations of EA?
Technical shortcomings from poor quality reports not meeting internationally accepted standards
-Impact predictions are of questionable accuracy
-mitigation and management measures are of questionable utility
-reports for decision making are of questionable relevance