Lecture 5: Human and animal Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 5: Human and animal Deck (37):
1

What does psychoanalysis focus on?
What does this contrast to?

Internal psychological processes
Behaviourism

2

What did Freud say were the primary influences of behaviour?
What did he say weren't the primary influences?

Unconscious drives like sexuality and aggression, they sometimes slip into consciousness; they're called Freudian slips
Forces outside the body (behaviourism) like rewards and punishment.

3

Describe the thought processes in terms of S-R according to introspectionists
Behaviourists
Cognitivism
Psychoanalysis

Stimulus --> Thoughts --> Response
Stimulus --> No mind --> Response
Stimulus --> Computer mechanism --> Response
Stimulus --> Sex and anger --> Response

4

What are the three components that the human psyche consists of according to Freud?
Describe each compnent

Ego: The decision maker, the ego deals with threats from the outside world, it experiences anxiety and then sends signals to take corrective actions. This can be straightforward or not, meaning we have to change our perceptions of threats.
Superego: Moral standards
ID: Primitive instincts

5

What are the three components that the human psyche consists of according to Freud?
Describe each compnent

Ego: The decision maker, the ego deals with threats from the outside world, it experiences anxiety and then sends signals to take corrective actions. This can be straightforward or not, meaning we have to change our perceptions of threats.
Superego: Moral standards
ID: Primitive instincts

6

List the 5 types of defence mechanisms according to Freud
Describe each

Denial: The motivated forgetting of distressing experiences, convincing yourself it didn't happen
Regression: Psychologically returning to a younger and safer time
Rationalisation: Providing a reasonable sounding explanation for unreasonable behaviours
Identification with the aggressor: Adopting the psychological characteristics of people we find threatening
Repression: Motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories

7

List the 5 types of defence mechanisms according to Freud
Describe each

Denial: The motivated forgetting of distressing experiences, convincing yourself it didn't happen
Regression: Psychologically returning to a younger and safer time
Rationalisation: Providing a reasonable sounding explanation for unreasonable behaviours
Identification with the aggressor: Adopting the psychological characteristics of people we find threatening
Repression: Motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories

8

What happens to repressed memories according to Freud?

They fuse with other unconscious material to form complexes. This can become conscious but it's transformed so that the original content is concealed, for example dreams which express the material symbolically. Therefore, dreams need to be interpreted.
The repressed thoughts lay at the heart of psychological dysfunction so psychoanalysts need to uncover them and bring them into conscious thought, this will therefore solve the dysfunction.

9

When did Freud die?
Do people still use his ideas?

1939
Yes but his work is very controversial

10

Describe false recovered memories

This started in the US in the 1980s and spread to the UK in the 1990s. Adults that had some kind of therapy would allegedly report repressed memories of being sexually abused by their parents. They claimed they had no knowledge of this before the therapy. People said this was the repression in action. Critics argue that people don't repress memories of trauma and that these memories might be false.

11

Describe false recovered memories

This started in the US in the 1980s and spread to the UK in the 1990s. Adults that had some kind of therapy would allegedly report repressed memories of being sexually abused by their parents. They claimed they had no knowledge of this before the therapy. People said this was the repression in action. Critics argue that people don't repress memories of trauma and that these memories might be false.

12

Describe the standard history of Freud
(Not the accurate history)

In his early career, he focused on treating hysteria. Hysteria meant any disorder where the patient experiences physical symptoms that have a psychological cause. He didn't look at organic causes and the patients were almost exclusively female. The symptoms of hysteria are: fainting, nervousness, muscle spasms, loss of appetite, insomnia and fluid retention. It's no longer recognised as a disorder. He believed it was caused by repressed memories (that operate unconsciously) of sexual assault when they are children, this is the seduction hypothesis. Therapy aimed to make these memories conscious, this is the insight of cause. He believed this where all psychological causes start. However, this theory was very discredited, for example, Reiger said it was giving credit to paranoid drivel which establishes deplorable old wives psychiatry. He then argued that hysteria was caused by fantasies of these scenes. This is the Oedipus complex. In the 1970s people began questioning his work. However, his work still stayed in highly regarded textbooks for much longer. Many therapies still follow his ideas that recovering hidden traumas solves dysfunction.

13

Describe the standard history of Freud
(Not the accurate history)

In his early career, he focused on treating hysteria. Hysteria meant any disorder where the patient experiences physical symptoms that have a psychological cause. He didn't look at organic causes and the patients were almost exclusively female. The symptoms of hysteria are: fainting, nervousness, muscle spasms, loss of appetite, insomnia and fluid retention. It's no longer recognised as a disorder. He believed it was caused by repressed memories (that operate unconsciously) of sexual assault when they are children, this is the seduction hypothesis. Therapy aimed to make these memories conscious, this is the insight of cause. He believed this where all psychological causes start. However, this theory was very discredited, for example, Reiger said it was giving credit to paranoid drivel which establishes deplorable old wives psychiatry. He then argued that hysteria was caused by fantasies of these scenes. This is the Oedipus complex

14

Describe the standard history of Freud
(Not the accurate history)

In his early career, he focused on treating hysteria. Hysteria meant any disorder where the patient experiences physical symptoms that have a psychological cause. He didn't look at organic causes and the patients were almost exclusively female. The symptoms of hysteria are: fainting, nervousness, muscle spasms, loss of appetite, insomnia and fluid retention. It's no longer recognised as a disorder. He believed it was caused by repressed memories (that operate unconsciously) of sexual assault when they are children, this is the seduction hypothesis. Therapy aimed to make these memories conscious, this is the insight of cause. He believed this where all psychological causes start. However, this theory was very discredited, for example, Reiger said it was giving credit to paranoid drivel which establishes deplorable old wives psychiatry. He then argued that hysteria was caused by fantasies of these scenes. This is the Oedipus complex.

15

Describe some critiques of the seduction theory
Who supported him?

Lerman: Freud interpreted one of his own dreams as feeling an incestuous desire for his daughter.
He had hysterics in his family so they would have seduced him.
Masson: His academic career was in peral so he decided to reject his original theory
A team of medical proffessors who supported his nomination as the associate proffessor at the uni of Vienna. Webster said that he was proto-feminist as he listened to the woman who had incest thoughts with understanding. Even though he retracted the seduction hypothesis, the idea carried on.

16

Describe some critiques of the seduction theory
Who supported him?

Lerman: Freud interpreted one of his own dreams as feeling an incestuous desire for his daughter.
He had hysterics in his family so they would have seduced him.
Masson: His academic career was in peral so he decided to reject his original theory
A team of medical proffessors who supported his nomination as the associate proffessor at the uni of Vienna. Webster said that he was proto-feminist as he listened to the woman who had incest thoughts with understanding. Even though he retracted the seduction hypothesis, the idea carried on.

17

Describe the revised history of Freud

Freud didn't uncover memories in his patients; he didn't record the memories, he recorded his interpretations of the memories.
For example, Dora (Ida) Bauer.

18

Describe some critiques of the seduction theory
Who supported him?

Lerman: Freud interpreted one of his own dreams as feeling an incestuous desire for his daughter.
He had hysterics in his family so they would have seduced him.
Masson: His academic career was in peral so he decided to reject his original theory
A team of medical proffessors who supported his nomination as the associate proffessor at the uni of Vienna. Webster said that he was proto-feminist as he listened to the woman who had incest thoughts with understanding. Even though he retracted the seduction hypothesis, the idea carried on. Some said his theories were a priori convictions that must be the root of a patient's problem

19

Describe the revised history of Freud

Freud didn't uncover memories in his patients; he didn't record the memories, he recorded his interpretations of the memories.
For example, Dora (Ida) Bauer.

20

Describe the case of Dora Bauer

She has difficulty breathing, depression, avoidance of social contact, threatened suicide, fainting smells and loss of voice. Freud said that unwanted sexual advances by her family friend Herr. k. triggered her mental illness. He said these advances were phantasies. Dora denied this and said they occurred. She had appendcits and dragged her right foot, Freud said that the abdominal pains were throes of a hysterical childbirth and the dragging foot indicated her knowledge that she made a 'false step', this is just pains associated with pelvic appendicitis. Her rejection of Herr and her symptoms were because of her infantile affection for her father as well as latent bisexuality. Her denial confirmed Freud was correct.

21

Describe Freud's pressure technique

He didn't really let patients make up their own minds about the seduction hypothesis, instead, he placed his hand on the patient's forehead if relevant thoughts weren't forthcoming. He then asked them to state any images that came, if no images came, he saw this as resistance so he then applied pressure, insisting an image would appear. He believes that this was justified and overcoming resistance was crucial. He believed that he could arrive at the cause without getting any information from the patient. However, he believed that he didn't and couldn't influence the patients.

22

Describe Freud's pressure technique

He didn't really let patients make up their own minds about the seduction hypothesis, instead, he placed his hand on the patient's forehead if relevant thoughts weren't forthcoming. He then asked them to state any images that came, if no images came, he saw this as resistance so he then applied pressure, insisting an image would appear. He believes that this was justified and overcoming resistance was crucial. He believed that he could arrive at the cause without getting any information from the patient. However, he believed that he didn't and couldn't influence the patients.

23

What is freud bashing?

The criticisms of his ideas and the belief that none of his ideas are scientifically accurate. However, psychoanalytic thinking is still used today.

24

What is Freud bashing?

The criticisms of his ideas and the belief that none of his ideas are scientifically accurate. However, psychoanalytic thinking is still used today. Freud and his critics are outdated and should be forgotten.

25

Describe modern psychoanalysis

Most of mental life is unconscious and mental processes work in parallel to this so we can have contradicting feelings about the same thing. Childhood plays an important role in personality development and this is when personality stabilises. Mental representations of self and others guide interactions and influence the way they become psychologically symptomatic. Personality development involves learning to control sexual and aggressive feelings but also moving from immature to mature.

26

Describe modern psychoanalysis

Most of mental life is unconscious and mental processes work in parallel to this so we can have contradicting feelings about the same thing. Childhood plays an important role in personality development and this is when personality stabilises. Mental representations of self and others guide interactions and influence the way they become psychologically symptomatic. Personality development involves learning to control sexual and aggressive feelings but also moving from immature to mature.

27

Describe the cognitive unconscious
And emotional unconscious

Kihlstrom founded it. It believes that a lot of cognitive functioning is unconscious, e.g. procedural memory (learning an instrument). Cognitive psychologists support this. Unconscious processing involves gaining skills that are automatised through experience.
The emotional unconscious believes that emotions and motivations can be unconscious and impact our behaviour, for example, attitudes. People claim not to be racist but they show unconscious biases.

28

Describe the cognitive unconscious
And emotional unconscious

Kihlstrom founded it. It believes that a lot of cognitive functioning is unconscious, e.g. procedural memory (learning an instrument). Cognitive psychologists support this. Unconscious processing involves gaining skills that are automatised through experience.
The emotional unconscious believes that emotions and motivations can be unconscious and impact our behaviour, for example, attitudes. People claim not to be racist but they show unconscious biases.
McGinnies 1949: This tested for it, the participants were presented with a list of normal and taboo words and found that there was higher arousal for the taboo words before the participants were consciously aware of the words. Showing that the unconscious is only knowable to the psychoanalysts, which constrasts Freud.

29

Describe the cognitive unconscious
And emotional unconscious

Kihlstrom founded it. It believes that a lot of cognitive functioning is unconscious, e.g. procedural memory (learning an instrument). Cognitive psychologists support this. Unconscious processing involves gaining skills that are automatised through experience.
The emotional unconscious believes that emotions and motivations can be unconscious and impact our behaviour, for example, attitudes. People claim not to be racist but they show unconscious biases.
McGinnies 1949: This tested for it, the participants were presented with a list of normal and taboo words and found that there was higher arousal for the taboo words before the participants were consciously aware of the words. Showing that the unconscious is only knowable to the psychoanalysts, which constrasts Freud.

30

List the critiques of psychoanalysis

Freud's techniques were bogus!
Classical techniques are questionable from a scientific view
It's based on small unrepresentative samples (wealthy successful people)
Sessions were never observed or recorded
Psychodynamic therapy is still better than no therapy though

31

Do we repress trauma?

It's next to impossible to study because you can't prove a negative. Literature shows that people remember trauma too well. People often don't disclose traumatic histories but it doesn't mean they don't remember them

32

Do we repress trauma?

It's next to impossible to study because you can't prove a negative. Literature shows that people remember trauma too well. People often don't disclose traumatic histories but it doesn't mean they don't remember them

33

Compare behaviourism and psychoanalysis

Behaviourism: We're unconscious to the true causes of behaviour
Psychoanalysis: Similar views.
The psychoanalyst knows more than you do

34

Describe humanistic psychology

Rogers was the founder. It's a client centered approach, which is a direct contrast to psychoanalysis. The client is seen as the expert and the therapist frees the client's powers to solve personal problems. The therapist should be authentic, genuine and true to their reactions. They should express positive regard for the patient and be empathetic and understanding.

35

Describe humanistic psychology

Rogers was the founder. It's a client centered approach, which is a direct contrast to psychoanalysis. The client is seen as the expert and the therapist frees the client's powers to solve personal problems. The therapist should be authentic, genuine and true to their reactions. They should express positive regard for the patient and be empathetic and understanding.

36

List the implications of humanistic psychology

It involves taking responsibilities for one's actions and not attributing our problems to the past but focusing on the present. You can facilitate one's learning in education. It can be used for motivational interviewing which is when you clarify reasons for changing your life, useful for alcoholism and modifying health related behaviours.

37

Evaluate the humanistic approach

The quality of the therapeutic relationship relates to the success of the therapy, moreso than specific techniques. Self help programs are just as effective. Person centered therapy is more effective than no treatment.