Flashcards in Quant: Lecture 4 Deck (11):

1

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Is a research question conceptual or operational?

What about a hypothesis?

###
Conceptual

Operational

2

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What's the aim of a hypothesis?

Should you use a one-tailed or two-tailed hypothesis?

###
To state the expected result and to indicate the cause and effect.

Two-tailed, unless you have research two back up a one-tailed hypothesis.

3

## What is the aim of a null hypothesis?

### To predict no effect between two variables and any effect is due to random error. It's a statistical throwback.

4

## When testing for significance, what does the expected hypothesis predict?

### It predicts that the results won't be in the same scale as the normal distribution.

5

## What is the hypothetico-deductive method?

### It's when you check whether your results are due to random error or not by calculating a statistical test. This finds the probability of whether the results are due to sampling error.

6

## How do you calculate probability?

### Number of ways an event can occur divided by the number of possible outcomes. For example, flipping a coin for heads: there is one way the event can occur but there are two possible outcomes. 1/2=0.5. Probability will always be between 0 and 1 and the smaller the value, the less likely the event will occur.

7

## What is the number that psychologists use as a limit for random error explaining results?

### 0.05. If it's larger than this then random error explains the results and they aren't statistically significant. Then we would accept the null. Non-significant results can still be important.

8

## Can results ever be 100% confident?

### No, because you use a sample, not the whole population, so the results are only supported, not proven.

9

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List one disadvantage of an unrelated sample and list the solution for it

Do the same for a related sample

###
Individual differences as different people are in each condition.

Solution: Randomly allocate.

Order effects, e.g. fatigue or learning

Solution: Counterbalance.

10

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When should you use a matched-pairs design?

When shouldn't you use a related sample?

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When a related sample would reveal the aim of the study.

When the pre-condition can't be identified or caused, e.g. the effects of car accidents on depression.

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