Lecture 6: Everyday life Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 6: Everyday life Deck (51):
1

Define fear
Define anxiety
How do they interact?

A state of tension or alarm in response to a serious threat
A response to an unspecified threat
They both prepare one for a fight or flight response and they have the same clinical features.

2

When does anxiety become a disorder?

When it's continuous, disabling, too severe, too frequent, too long lasting and too easily triggered. 15% of people have one of the six anxiety disorders.

3

What are the six types of anxiety disorder?
Describe each

Specific phobia; Fears of objects or situations that are out of proportion to any real danger. Social phobia involves a fear of unfamiliar people or public scrutiny.
Panic disorder; Anxiety about recurrent panic attacks, this is sometimes accompanied with agoraphobia which is a fear of being in places where this panic could occur.
Generalised anxiety disorder; Uncontrollable worry for at least 6 months
Obsessive compulsive disorder; Obsessions involve uncontrollable thoughts, impulses or images. Compulsions are repetitive behaviours or mental acts.
PTSD; When a person re-experiences a traumatic event, avoids stimuli associated with it and experiences increased arousal.
Acute stress disorder; Similar to PTSD but lasts for less than 4 weeks.

4

What are the six types of anxiety disorder?
Describe each

Specific phobia; Fears of objects or situations that are out of proportion to any real danger. Social phobia involves a fear of unfamiliar people or public scrutiny.
Panic disorder; Anxiety about recurrent panic attacks, this is sometimes accompanied with agoraphobia which is a fear of being in places where this panic could occur.
Generalised anxiety disorder; Uncontrollable worry for at least 6 months
Obsessive compulsive disorder; Obsessions involve uncontrollable thoughts, impulses or images. Compulsions are repetitive behaviours or mental acts.
PTSD; When a person re-experiences a traumatic event, avoids stimuli associated with it and experiences increased arousal.
Acute stress disorder; Similar to PTSD but lasts for less than 4 weeks.

5

Describe the historical background of anxiety disorders

They were originally called neuroses, which Freud believed was caused by the inability of ego defence mechanisms to prevent anxiety aroused by unconscious conflicts. It was obvious that anxiety was involved in phobic, anxiety and OCD disorders. However, this anxiety was hidden in hysterical, neurasthenic, depersonalisation, depressive and hypochondriacal neuroses.

6

Describe the historical background of anxiety disorders

They were originally called neuroses, which Freud believed was caused by the inability of ego defence mechanisms to prevent anxiety aroused by unconscious conflicts. It was obvious that anxiety was involved in phobic, anxiety and OCD disorders. However, this anxiety was hidden in hysterical, neurasthenic, depersonalisation, depressive and hypochondriacal neuroses. The DSM now defines anxiety by it's symptoms rather than its causes.
Anxiety is the main symptom of these disorders, other symptoms lead to mood disorders, somatoform disorders or dissociative disorders.

7

List the basic characteristics of anxiety disorders

Faster breathing, tense muscles, rapid heart rate, nausea, inability to concentrate and distorted world perceptions.

8

Describe the autonomic nervous system in terms of anxiety disorders

Sympathetic involves the fight or flight system
Parasympathetic involves the rest and digest system
Both systems are complementary to each other.

9

What is trait anxiety?
What about state anxiety?

Anxiety that is on your general level, long lasting
This is anxiety that changes depending on your situation, kind of like a mood.

10

Describe phobic disorders
Give 3 examples of phobias

A persistent unreasonable fear of an object or situation. The coping strategy is to avoid the object and not think about it. They vary with age; old people mainly fear crowds or injury, young adults mainly fear snakes, heights and storms.
Agoraphobia; Fear of public places
Social phobia; Fear of scrutiny
Simple phobia; Fear of objects or discrete events.

11

Describe phobic disorders
Give 3 examples of phobias

A persistent unreasonable fear of an object or situation. The coping strategy is to avoid the object and not think about it. They vary with age; old people mainly fear crowds or injury, young adults mainly fear snakes, heights and storms.
Agoraphobia; Fear of public places
Social phobia; Fear of scrutiny
Simple phobia; Fear of objects or discrete events.

12

How do phobic disorders develop?

Vulnerability; genes, cognitions
+
Classical conditioning
+
Observational learning; seeing other people react fearfully to something

13

Describe GAD (generalised anxiety)

It's free floating anxiety or chronic, persistent anxiety. At mainly appears in childhood and it's symptoms include: muscular tension, autonomic hyperactivity, vigilance and scanning. People usually develop other disorders as a result, mainly depression. It's frustrating for family and friends as well as the sufferer.

14

Describe the explanations for phobias and GAD

Sociocultural/societal pressures.
Psychoanalytical: Ego defence mechanisms
Humanism: Harsh self standards
Behavioural: Classical conditioning, operant for avoidance
Biological: Genetic basis. benzodiazepines reduces anxiety. GAD is associated with the feedback system that involves GABA and its receptors. The arousal styles run in families.

15

Describe the explanations for phobias and GAD

Sociocultural/societal pressures.
Psychoanalytical: Ego defence mechanisms
Humanism: Harsh self standards
Behavioural: Classical conditioning, operant for avoidance
Biological: Genetic basis. benzodiazepines reduces anxiety. GAD is associated with the feedback system that involves GABA and its receptors. The arousal styles run in families.

16

Describe panic disorders

They are periodic discrete bouts of panic that occur abruptly and peak at 10 minutes. Symptoms involve: palpitations, tingling in extremities, shortness of breath, sweating, temperature change, trembling, chest pains, choking, faintness, dizziness and a sense of unreality. It occurs frequently, unpredictably and without apparent cause. It requires a certain level of cognitive and physical maturity.

17

Describe the explanations of panic disorders

Biological: They have high norepinephrine levels and drugs reduce these levels and reduce the symptoms. Norepinephrine activity in the locus coerulus is irregular for these people. Yohimbine, which alters this activity, can trigger a panic attack in anyone.

18

Describe the explanations of panic disorders

Biological: They have high norepinephrine levels and drugs reduce these levels and reduce the symptoms. Norepinephrine activity in the locus coerulus is irregular for these people. Yohimbine, which alters this activity, can trigger a panic attack in anyone. Blood pressure medicine, like clonidine, alters the activity and reduces panic symptoms.
Cognitive biological: They're sensitive to physical sensations and worry about losing control as a result. They fear the worst and hyperventilate, inducing a panic attack. People with medical disorders can be incorrectly diagnosed with having a panic attack.

19

Describe the prevalence of OCD

2% of people have it, it usually begins in adolescence and early adulthood. There are no sex differences. Comorbidity: Depression and alcoholism most likely.

20

Describe obsessions

Thoughts or wishes that can involve the past or future. Cross cultural obsessions: Dirt, contamination, violence, aggression, orderliness, religion and sexuality.

21

Describe compulsions

When one is compelled to perform behaviours. The rituals are detailed and elaborate. Common compulsions: Cleaning, checking, symmetry, order, balance, touching, counting, eating etc.

22

How are obsessions and compulsions related?

70% of people have both. Compulsions usually yield to obsessive doubts. It's less common for compulsions to be used to control obsessions.

23

How are obsessions and compulsions related?

70% of people have both. Compulsions usually yield to obsessive doubts. It's less common for compulsions to be used to control obsessions.

24

List the explanations of OCD

These aren't very well understood
Psychoanalytic: Anal stage
Cognitive-behavioural: Repetitive behaviours develop via operant conditioning and they help reduce anxiety.
Biological: Antidepressants help reduce symptoms. Clomipramine increases serotonin activity, this reduces OCD symptoms. Abnormal functioning in the orbital region of the frontal cortex and caudate nuclei may be involved, these areas control the conversion of sensory input into cognitions/actions. When these areas are damaged, symptoms can increase or decrease. PET scans reveal rapid glucose metabolism in these areas and serotonin is active.

25

List the explanations of OCD

These aren't very well understood
Psychoanalytic: Anal stage
Cognitive-behavioural: Repetitive behaviours develop via operant conditioning and they help reduce anxiety.
Biological: Antidepressants help reduce symptoms. Clomipramine increases serotonin activity, this reduces OCD symptoms. Abnormal functioning in the orbital region of the frontal cortex and caudate nuclei may be involved, these areas control the conversion of sensory input into cognitions/actions. When these areas are damaged, symptoms can increase or decrease. PET scans reveal rapid glucose metabolism in these areas and serotonin is active.

26

What can increase your risk of developing more than one anxiety disorder?

Genetic vulnerability, increased activity in the fear circuit, decreased functioning of GABA and serotonin, increased norepinephrine activity, negative life events, behaviour inhibition, neuroticism, cognitive factors like low perception of control.

27

What factors can cause stress?

Stressors: A situation or event that sets demands, constraints and opportunities.
Appraisal of the stressor: Perceiving the degree of demand
Appraisal of the ability to cope: Perceiving one's ability to handle demand

28

What can make you more vulnerable or resistant to stress?

Your temperament, confidence, coping skills, e.g. task orientated or emotion focused, social support.

29

What can make you more vulnerable or resistant to stress?

Your temperament, confidence, coping skills, e.g. task orientated or emotion focused, social support.

30

Finish the sentence
People who can cope with stress have the ability to...

... seek pertinent information, share concerns, find consolation, redefine a situation to make it more solvable, consider alternatives, examine consequences, use humour to defuse a situation.

31

Define stress

An experience that occurs when one appraises the stressor as exceeding one's ability.

32

Describe the physical reactions to stress

The reticular activating system (focuses attention) focuses your attention on the potential danger so a feedback loop can be created. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis connect the nervous system to the endocrine system, allowing the reaction to occur. In response to a threat, the adrenal glands release adrenaline which diverts energy to muscles and away from long-term maintenance. Adrenaline interferes with judgement resulting in you seeing everything as a threat rather than a challenge to be solved, this is narrow focus. Adrenaline is quick but after prolonged stress, cortisol is released which can depress immunity for up to 8 hours. Sustained cortisol release can damage learning and memory. DHEA, aka dehydroepiandosterone, slows ageing and prevents chronic health conditions, it decreases after 30 years, as cortisol increases, DHEA decreases and the ratio indicates health or illness.

33

Describe the physical reactions to stress

The reticular activating system (focuses attention) focuses your attention on the potential danger so a feedback loop can be created. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis connect the nervous system to the endocrine system, allowing the reaction to occur. In response to a threat, the adrenal glands release adrenaline which diverts energy to muscles and away from long-term maintenance. Adrenaline interferes with judgement resulting in you seeing everything as a threat rather than a challenge to be solved, this is narrow focus. Adrenaline is quick but after prolonged stress, cortisol is released which can depress immunity for up to 8 hours. Sustained cortisol release can damage learning and memory. DHEA, aka dehydroepiandosterone, slows ageing and prevents chronic health conditions, it decreases after 30 years, as cortisol increases, DHEA decreases and the ratio indicates health or illness.

34

Describe adjustment disorder

Excess distress due to one or more stressors in the previous 3 months. It doesn't include bereavement. When the stressors dissipate, so does the distress because they learn to live with the circumstances. Symptoms usually last less than 6 months. There isn't bizarre behaviour, there's just depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, deterioration on performance, social withdrawal and conduct disturbances.

35

Describe adjustment disorder

Excess distress due to one or more stressors in the previous 3 months. It doesn't include bereavement. When the stressors dissipate, so does the distress because they learn to live with the circumstances. Symptoms usually last less than 6 months. There isn't bizarre behaviour, there's just depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, deterioration on performance, social withdrawal and conduct disturbances.

36

What is PTSD?

A stress reaction in response to an intensely traumatic event more disturbing than most common human experiences. It occurs within 3 months of the event (acute) or within 6 months (delayed).

37

List the symptoms of PTSD

A tendency to re-experience events, painful or intrusive recollections like dreams, excessive autonomic arousal like hyperalertness, difficulty concentrating, depression, anxiety, restlessness, irritability, impulsiveness, alcohol and drug abuse, social deterioration, denial.

38

What makes you more vulnerable to getting PTSD?

Pre-existing emotional and behavioural difficulties (alcoholism), your stage of development/sense of identity, dissociation during trauma leading to you ignoring the reality of the danger, lack of control, vulnerability, new emotional and behavioural discoveries of self, the trauma itself whether causal or victim and the severity, duration and proximity to the trauma.

39

What makes you more vulnerable to getting PTSD?

Pre-existing emotional and behavioural difficulties (alcoholism), your stage of development/sense of identity, dissociation during trauma leading to you ignoring the reality of the danger, lack of control, vulnerability, new emotional and behavioural discoveries of self, the trauma itself whether causal or victim and the severity, duration and proximity to the trauma.

40

Name an event when PTSD rose dramtically

9/11

41

Describe prolonged duress disorder

Similar to PTSD except there is a number of events that accumulate and have the chronic nature of stressors that constitute a trauma.

42

Describe dissociative disorder

Disturbance in the function of identity, memory and consciousness. Compartmentalisation (used to avoid anxiety) of the above occurs.

43

What is dissociation

You can severe your connection between ideas and emotions, it occurs when: attention is divided between multiple tasks, in a fantasy, in imagination. It becomes pathological when one loses control of this in the face of a trauma. Individuals differ in their ability to dissociate. It's common and accepted in various cultural rituals and religious experiences.

44

What is dissociation

You can severe your connection between ideas and emotions, it occurs when: attention is divided between multiple tasks, in a fantasy, in imagination. It becomes pathological when one loses control of this in the face of a trauma. Individuals differ in their ability to dissociate. It's common and accepted in various cultural rituals and religious experiences.

45

What is dissociative amnesia

Extensive but selective memory loss in the absence of organic change so it's not forgetfulness. It's usually precipitated by accidents or trauma.

46

Describe the types of dissociative amnesia

Localised amnesia; fail to recall events that occurred during a particular period of time
Selective amnesia; recall some events that occurred during a particular period of time
Generalised amnesia; Recall failure that encompasses one's whole life, this is rare
Continuous amnesia; Unable to recall events after a specific time up until present
Systematised amnesia; The loss of memories for categories of information

47

Describe the types of dissociative amnesia

Localised amnesia; fail to recall events that occurred during a particular period of time
Selective amnesia; recall some events that occurred during a particular period of time
Generalised amnesia; Recall failure that encompasses one's whole life, this is rare
Continuous amnesia; Unable to recall events after a specific time up until present
Systematised amnesia; The loss of memories for categories of information

48

What is dissociative fugue?

Unexpected travel away from home or work and assuming a new identity. You forget your previous one. It's purposeful but usually brief with complete recovery. Likely to re-occur. No recollection of events on recovery. There is usually no psychopathology and it's often precipitated by intolerable stress.

49

What is dissociative identity disorder?

Alternate personalities, each one has memories, values, behaviours etc. There is usually one-sided awareness or each personality is aware of the other. Can spontaneously go into a trance. New personalities usually begin in childhood as a response to abuse, it's a mechanism to protect oneself from the abuse. They try to hide their personalities until they become aware of them in later life. After the publication of Sybil, the amount of cases dramatically increased. A hillside strangler claimed to have MPD to get a reduced sentence but students were able to replicate this MPD proving it was false.

50

What is dissociative identity disorder?

Alternate personalities, each one has memories, values, behaviours etc. There is usually one-sided awareness or each personality is aware of the other. Can spontaneously go into a trance. New personalities usually begin in childhood as a response to abuse, it's a mechanism to protect oneself from the abuse. They try to hide their personalities until they become aware of them in later life. After the publication of Sybil, the amount of cases dramatically increased. A hillside strangler claimed to have MPD to get a reduced sentence but students were able to replicate this MPD proving it was false.

51

What is depersonalisation?

It's a change of self perception where the sense of reality is temporarily lost. Not in control of of what you're doing, saying or feeling. It has a rapid onset and causes an impairment of social and occupational functioning. There is a persistent sense of depersonalisation and gradual cessation.