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Flashcards in Psychology of everyday life Deck (117):
1

When defining abnormality, what is it extremely important to consider?

Context is extremely important so that you can understand the circumstances.

2

What are the 4 main characteristics of abnormal functioning? Explain each one.

Deviance: Violations of society's culturally based social norms.
Distress: This is experienced by the family and/or individual but it's important to consider that most people experience distress.
Dysfunction: Distortion of perceptual or cognitive functioning altering your perception of reality.
Danger: To oneself or others but this only happens in rare cases.

3

List 3 examples of culturally BIASED abnormalities.

1. Samuel Cartwright diagnosed slaves with drapetomania in the 1800s because they had an irrational urge to run away from home/slavery.
2. He also diagnosed slaves with dysathesia aethopia because they refused to comply with work demands and they were disobedient.
3. In the 1970s, homosexuality was in the DSM.

4

Is it easy or hard to define abnormalities?
Are labels for abnormalities effective?

It's hard to define abnormalities because there are so many individual differences.
Labels aren't effective because abnormalities are constantly changing and a lot of the time an individual won't fit into certain labels and is therefore placed in the 'others' category.

5

What are the primitive sacred notions of abnormality?
3 things.

They believed that abnormality was cause by animistic models aka animal spirits, mythological models or demonological models aka evil spirits.

6

Describe some ancient views and treatments for abnormality.
2 things.

Abnormality was caused by magic and evil spirits and to eradicate this, they underwent trephination (this occurred during the stone age), which involves drilling a hole in the skulls, perhaps to release the evil spirits.
In literate cultures like egypt and china, they believed abnormalities were caused by demons and the patients would undergo exorcisms to treat the abnormalities.

7

Describe some Greek and Roman views and treatments for abnormality.
4 things.

They used Hindu medical treatments that were based on Babylonian ideas.
The greeks described mental disorders as melancholia, mania and phrenitis, which is brain fever/dementia.
Hippocrates believed mental disorders were caused by imbalances in bodily fluids called humors, aka black pile, yellow pile, phlegm and blood.
Another treatment involved treating underlying physical problems by sending the (usually upper class male) patients to a place with a relaxing atmosphere, music massages, vegetarian diets etc.

8

Describe some European Middle age views and treatments for abnormalities.
5 things.

This is when the Roman Empire collapsed and scientific reasoning collapsed with it as people believed plagues, wars and uprisings were caused by evil spirits/the devil.
They believed in disorders like tarantism, which is a sudden, hysterical impulse to dance that began in Taranto, Italy, lunacy aka moon madness and lycanthropy, which is wolf possession, caused by demons.
Lycanthropy is still around today but it is much less common and doesn't involve demonic possession.
A study showed that out of 12 cases, 11, had acute or chronic psychosis and 8 of the patients had bipolar depression. The lycanthropy only lasted up to three weeks. Although, there was one cause where it lasted 13 years. Some of the animals that possessed the patient were; wolves, dogs, rabbits etc.
Treatments for disorders in this time period were usually exorcisms but towards the end of this age, medical treatments began to reappear.

9

Describe some treatments during the Renaissance for abnormalities. 3 things.
Also, describe the treatments during the 19th century. 3 things.

Renaissance: Johann Weyer was the first medical practitioner to specialise in mental illness. He focused on home care and pilgrimages to the holy shrine.
Some hospitals were turned into asylums, which became extremely dirty and degrading.
As well as the asylums having deplorable conditions, the treatments in there were also awful, for example, Benjamin Rush would draw blood from patients as a therapeutic treatment.
19th century: Pinel and Tuke protested to unchain mental patients and improve the conditions. Their treatments were known as moral treatments.
Psychiatrists were called Alienists and they treated patients via mesmerism, coma therapy, lobotomies etc. and this treatment worked with most patients.
Recovery rates then dropped along with money and staff and the mentally ill were seen as strange and dangerous.
To diagnose the mentally ill, they often looked for lumps and bumps in their skull.

10

Describe a cause for abnormailty from each culture:
Chinese
African

Chinese: Yin and yang and spirit possessions are the cause and they're treated via acupuncture mainly.
African: Enemies, malicious spirits or offended ancestors are the cause. They only focus on physical causes.

11

What is the origin for the term lycanthropy?

Zeus transformed Lycaon into a wolf as punishment for tricking Zeus into eating human flesh, this was then incorporated into the mental illness.

12

What happened to most lycanthropes?

They were burned at the stake as it was thought to be a demonic possession.

13

True or false
People with mental disorders are unhappy.
Explain

False, people with mental disorders are less happy but still reported being happy often but the level of happiness does correlate with the type of disorder. Mood disorders and anxiety disorders reported the lowest happiness but this was still average.

14

What is another term for limitation?

Caveat

15

List 3 facts about the Biological paradigm model and 2 of its assumptions.

1. It was one of the earliest models to attribute mental illness to physical causes.
2. It has been a strong model since the development of psychotropic drugs in the 1950s.
3. It has always considered all mental disorders as a disease and it's also called the medical model
1. It assumes that psychopathology is caused by an organic effect.
2. It assumes that behaviour genetics, biochemistry and the nervous system can explain behaviour.

16

List three advantages about the Biological paradigm model.

1. Psychotropic medications are gaining in importance so it's useful to continue research for it.
2. The research within this model is progressing rapidly.
3. Psychological processes have biological causes, so it's useful to develop biological treatments and cures (especially to reduce repeat prescriptions).

17

Within the biological model, what are the two subdivisions?

Behaviour genetics and biochemistry.

18

Give a brief overview of what behaviour genetics explores and how it explores this.

It explores individual differences in behaviour that are attributable to genetics and whether the phenotypes of clinical syndromes are expressed depending on context.
It explores this via concordance levels of Mz twins and Dz twins and whether they're adopted or not, this helps uncover gene-environment interactions and reciprocal genes (genes predisposing people to create certain environments). E.g. more likely to get depression after a break up.

19

Give a brief overview of what biochemistry explores.

It explores the influence of various neurotransmitters like norepinephrine, serotonin, GABA and dopamine which are implicated to various disorders, mainly serotonin, like alcoholism, aggression etc.
In 1997 the first artificial chromosome was created so once all genes are mapped, gene therapy could potentially occur which would have a higher success rate than present treatments.

20

Who developed the psychodynamic model and what did the iceberg hypothesis consist of?

Freud.
The iceberg hypothesis, aka the Freudian self, consists of the conscious, the preconscious (your ego) and the unconscious (your ID and your super ego). The unconscious has the largest role.

21

Describe 7 beliefs of the psychodynamic model.

1. Your libido, aka sensual energy, fuels the ID, ego and super ego.
2. The Id operates with the pleasure principle and uses primary process thinking like wish fulfilment whereas your ego works with the reality principle and uses secondary process thinking.
3. The ego creates defence mechanisms to reduce anxiety and unacceptable impulses caused by Id. The basic defence mechanism is repression.
4. The superego grows from the ego and uses parents' values through 2 components; the conscious and the ego ideal.
5. Every child goes through psychosexual stages; oral anal, phallic, latency and genital.
6. Ego psychologist like Erikson, believe that the ego is more independent and powerful than Freud says.
7. Jung believed that personality involves self realisation and collective unconscious.

22

Name one strength and one limitation of the psychodynamic model.

Strength: It has had a significant impact on the treatment of abnormal functioning and has enabled us to understand that abnormal functioning can be at the root of normal functioning.
Limitation: It has little research,involves many case studies and often fails to predict abnormality so it can't be fully validated.

23

List 2 assumptions of the behavioural model.

It assumes that (abnormal) behaviour is learnt.
It was the first clinical perspective developed in a psychological laboratory.

24

List the main three ways in which behaviour is learnt (behavioural model).
Explain.

Classical conditioning: This occurs via temporal association, where an neutral stimulus becomes conditioned and elicits a response via association. For example Pavlov's dogs.
Operant conditioning: This occurs through reinforcement, positive reinforcement is more effective. Using this method you can undergo shaping, which is when you use rewards to get successive approximations of desired behaviour.
Modelling: Acquiring responses via imitation and observation, this includes language, gestures and food preferences.

25

List 2 strengths and 2 limitations of the behavioural model.

Strengths: It's a powerful force in the clinical field that can be tested in a lab. The CB model is a model that is effective and is growing
Limitations: Treatments are easier to find than causes and behaviour doesn't always follow basic principles.

26

Name 2 assumptions of the cognitive model.

It explores mental processes like perceiving, recognising, conceiving, judging and reasoning.
It believes that cognitive processes are at centre of behaviour, thought and emotions.

27

List 3 beliefs of the cognitive model.

Maladaptive and irrational assumptions lead one to react in ways that lower one's chance of happiness and success.
Upsetting, automatic thoughts can contribute to abnormal thinking.
Illogical thinking involves selective perception, magnification and overgeneralisation.

28

List three strengths and one limitation of the cognitive model.

Strengths: It has a broad appeal for a lot of people.
The theories can be tested and there has been a lot of research in the field.
It's effective in terms of treatment for depression, anxiety and sexual disorders.
Limitation: It has a narrow scope as it can't help treat that many disorders.

29

When looking at the humanistic-existential model, what are the humanistic beliefs? (The model was formed by Roger)

Unconditional positive regard results in unconditional self regard.
Conditions of worth are your standards of self judgement and standards of conformity to social norms.
Low conditions of worth results in self deception, which inhibits self actualisation.

30

When looking at the humanistic-existential model, what are the existential beliefs?

Dysfunction is caused by self deception, which is hiding from life's responsibilities.
Someone looks towards authorities, excessively conforms or builds resentment when overwhelmed with pressures.
Also, failure to fulfil responsibility can lead to feelings of emptiness, alienation, frustration, depression and anxiety.

31

List 2 strengths and one limitation of the humanistic-existential model.

Strengths: It's an optimistic model that focuses on broad issues.
It views patients as people whose special potential is yet to be fulfilled and whose behaviour can be influenced by their innate goodness.
Limitation: The theories aren't very adaptable to research.

32

List 3 facts about the sociocultural model

It believes that forms of abnormal behaviour are linked to social classes and patterns of abnormal behaviour vary among cultures.
It partakes in epidemiological studies which identifies the prevalence and incidence of specific disorders.
It has shown that societies undergoing major change have higher incidences of mental illness.
It has shown that mental illness is 3 times higher in lower class areas compared to higher classes.
It has shown that physical and psychological health is harder to achieve when you're prejudiced against a certain race or gender.
There are twice as many incidences of anxiety and depression in women.

33

List one strength and 3 limitations of the sociocultural model

Strength: It's added an important dimension to our understanding of abnormal functioning
Limitations: Research is sometimes inaccurate and hard to interpret.
Studies have failed to support the model's key predictions.
The model can't predict psychopathology in specific individuals.

34

When comparing models, what 3 things should you keep in mind?
Give an example for the last point.

No model is consistently superior than the other
All relevant factors from each model should be appreciated
Many predisposing factors can contribute to a disorder and other factors can maintain it. For example, your genetics can predispose you to a disorder and your environment (stressful surroundings) can precipitate it, this is the diathesis stress model.

35

List 5 ways in which you assess for a disorder

Interviews (structured or unstructured), questionnaires, performance tests (neuro, self report, intelligence, projective etc.), observations (naturalistic, self monitoring or structured) and measuring families.

36

What did Rorschach believe?

He believed that the pictures children saw in the clouds, reflected their personalities and using this idea, he created the ink blot test.

37

Describe the Bender visual motor gestalt test

It's an intelligence test used to evaluate disorders designed for patients after brain trauma. They have to memorise and draw specific patterns.

38

List 6 errors in thinking, explain each one.

1. The fundamental attribution error, which is when people overestimate the influence of personality and underestimate influences of the environment.
2. The human mind makes errors, especially in terms of inaccurate clinical judgement.
3. Confirmatory bias, which is when a patient confirms preconceived thoughts of the clinician.
4. First impressions having an effect on judgement.
5. Illusory correlation, which is when you believe one variable has a direct effect on the other.
6. Availability bias, which is when a patient only recalls recent information as it's more memorable.

39

How many disorders does the DSM-V diagnose?
How many categories in the DSM are there?

200
14

40

List 6 potential sources of bias during diagnosis and research

1. Using a diagnostic system as it ignores causes.
2. Judgements by clinicians
3. Measurement methods
4. The sampling method
5. Only using participants who are seeking treatment
6. Using women predominantly for research as they seek treatment more.

41

Describe the 2 levels to every dream, according to the psychoanalytic perspective (Freud).

1. The manifest content, which consists of left over residue from the day.
2. The latent content, which consists of unconscious conflicts that the person is having.

42

What are the necessary components for a flourishing relationship? What must this be accompanied by?

Attachment and love which must be accompanied by positive purposeful relationship behaviours.

43

Briefly describe Bowlby (1969)'s study

He found two types of parenting behaviours: maladaptive; chaotic, unplanned attempts to meet the child's need, adaptive; responsive to a child's behavioural cues. These can affect the child's functional behaviour and emotional experiences. He found out that insecure attachment is a precursor for many development struggles.

44

What does the attachment system do in terms of parental behaviour? What did Lopez (2003) state?

It regulates the proximity seeking behaviours that connect infants and caregivers in physical and emotional space.
He stated that the primary function of infant attachment is for protection and emotional security.

45

Describe Ainsworth's study (1979)

He created a strange situations test with a child and caregiver. They were put in a novel situation; the baby is put on the floor away from toys, a stranger comes in and talks to the mum, then plays with the baby. The mum leaves.
Mum returns, mum and stranger leave. Stranger returns, plays with the baby and then mum returns and picks up the child.
The responses are coded; secure (balance between exploration of the environment and contact with the caregiver), insecure-avoidant (avoids the caregiver when reintroduced) and insecure-resistant (demonstrates hostility towards the caregiver but also wants to be comforted).

46

What is an internal working model of self and others? Explain

It is attachment. It consists of children integrating the perceptions of their social competence and lovability (self model) with expectations of their caregivers (other model). The models stay relatively stable through development as they are self reinforcing.

47

What did Hazan and Shaver (1987) find?
What about Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991)?

The three categories of attachment (secure, insecure avoidant and insecure resistant) are present in adult romantic relationships.
They found 2 types of avoidant attachment; dismissive and fearful. So the four types of attachment are: Secure (positive of self and others), preoccupied (Negative of self but positive of others), fearful (positive of self but negative of others) and dismissive (negative of self and others). Secure people are emotionally close with others and depend on them, they don't worry about being alone. Preoccupied; Want to be emotionally intimate with others but feels others are reluctant to get close, they need close relationships. Fearful; Feels uncomfortable getting close with others, trust issues, still wants close relationships. Dismissive; Doesn't need close relationships, independent and self sufficient.

48

What did Taylor (2002) and Schore (1994) find?

Taylor found that a nurturing child-carer relationship promotes the development of regulatory activity; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Schore found that interpersonal connections stimulate brain activity which creates regulatory systems leading to the development of empathy, enjoyment and management of stress.

49

What is the equity theory?
Who created it?

The equity theory states that when in a close relationship, you want to get out what you put in, if it isn't balance the relationship will probably end, you calculate the costs and benefits of the interpersonal resources.
Walster, Walster and Berscheid

50

What is released during touch and social contact?
When does it surge?
What did Bartels and Zeki (2004) find out?

Oxytocin
Pregnancy and childbirth
Brain regions for negative emotions and social comparison deactivate when mums look at pictures of their children.

51

Describe Lucas' study about love and marriage

He studied 24,000 couples over 15 years and asked them to rate their happiness on a scale from 1 to 10. Their happiness was highest on their wedding day and remained the same before and 2 years after their wedding day.

52

List 4 simple facts about love and marriage

Many marriages end in divorce, relationships evolve, people think you shouldn't have to work on love, there are many varieties of love

53

What are Singer's 4 traditions that define love?

1. Eros; the search for the beautiful
2. Philia; The affection in friendship
3. Nomos; Submission and obedience to the divine
4. Agape; The bestowal of love by the divine

54

Finish the sentence...
Romantic love is a complex emotion that...

...has passionate and companionate forms.

55

Define passionate love and what does it involve?
Define companionate love and what does it involve?

Passionate love: The intense arousal that fuels a romantic union. It involves a state of absorption between two people that is often accompanied by moods ranging from ecstasy to anger.
Companionate love: The soothing steady warmth that sustains a relationship. It involves a manifestation of romantic love in a strong bond and intertwining lives, this brings a feeling of comfort and peace.

56

Describe Contreras, Hendrick and Hendrick's study (1996)

They found that companionate and passionate love were still present in couples that had been married for 40 years but passionate love was the biggest predictor for marriage satisfaction.

57

Describe Sternberg's triangular theory

He believed love consisted of three components. 1. Passion, attractiveness and romantic drives. 2. Intimacy, closeness and connectedness. 3. Commitment, initiation and sustainability. These three components interact. Liking (intimacy) interacts with empty love (only commitment) to form companionate love. Empty love interacts with infatuation (passion) to form fatuous love. Infatuation interacts with liking to form romantic love. All three of these interact to form consummate love.

58

What did Sternberg find out about 'love stories'?

He found 26 love stories (e.g. fantasy, horror etc.) when interviewing couples which involved unconscious views of romance that guide our interpersonal choices.

59

What did Gottman find out about love and marriage?

He found the 'magic ratio' for marriages. There needs to be 5 positive interactions to every negative one to maintain a healthy relationship. Furthermore, small gestures are better than occasional big gestures. In a bad relationship: one half criticises, the other responds with contempt, this lead to defensiveness and withdrawal. The seven principles of making a marriage work: seek help early, edit yourself and think before you speak, soften your 'start up', accept partner's influences, have high standards, learn to repair and exit arguments and focus on the bright side.

60

What did Gable et al. find?

Active, constructive responses were found to be most beneficial. There are 4 types of responses: active constructive, active destructive; actively responding in a negative way, passive constructive; a throw away positive statement and passive destructive; changing topic without an appropriate response. Never think you can change someone.

61

Describe the prevalence and history of childhood disorders

During the normal course of development, most children have some sort of emotional or behavioural problems, for example, worrying, bed-wetting, nightmares but these usually disappear. 17-22% of adolescents experience a mental disorder but it's more common in boys. A childhood disorder is significantly different to an adult one but some of the developmental disorders can persist to adulthood, for example, disturbances in social and language skills.

62

Describe the prevalence and history of childhood disorders

During the normal course of development, most children have some sort of emotional or behavioural problems, for example, worrying, bed-wetting, nightmares but these usually disappear. 17-22% of adolescents experience a mental disorder but it's more common in boys. A childhood disorder is significantly different to an adult one but some of the developmental disorders can persist to adulthood, for example, disturbances in social and language skills.

63

Briefly describe some childhood anxiety disorders

Almost half of children have multiple fears. Some children have social phobia which means that they become upset in the presence of strangers and consequently withdraw from these situations. Some children have generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and they're very self conscious and worry a lot.

64

Briefly describe some childhood anxiety disorders

Almost half of children have multiple fears. Some children have social phobia which means that they become upset in the presence of strangers and consequently withdraw from these situations. Some children have generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and they're very self conscious and worry a lot.

65

List the common fears that children have between 0 and 6 months old
What about 7 to 12 months?
1 year?

Loud noises, loss of support, spiders, some smells, hunger, snakes.
Strangers, heights, sudden and looming objects.
Separation from parent, being injured, strangers, falling in a toilet.

66

List the common fears that children have between 0 and 6 months old
What about 7 to 12 months?
1 year?

Loud noises, loss of support, spiders, some smells, hunger, snakes.
Strangers, heights, sudden and looming objects.
Separation from parent, being injured, strangers, falling in a toilet.

67

List the common fears that children have when they're 2
What about 3?
4?
5?

Loud noises, animals, darkness, separation from parent, changes in personal environment, strange peers and parents' moods.
Masks, darkness, animals, separation
Separation, animals, darkness, noises
Animals, 'bad people', darkness, separation, harm

68

List the common fears that children have when they're 6
What about 7 to 8?
9-12?
Teens?

Supernatural, injury, thunder, darkness, sleeping alone, separation
Supernatural, darkness, media events, staying alone, injury.
Tests, school performance, injury, appearance, thunder/lightning, death, darkness
Social performance, sexuality

69

List the common fears that children have when they're 6
What about 7 to 8?
9-12?
Teens?

Supernatural, injury, thunder, darkness, sleeping alone, separation
Supernatural, darkness, media events, staying alone, injury.
Tests, school performance, injury, appearance, thunder/lightning, death, darkness
Social performance, sexuality

70

List the common fears that children have when they're 6
What about 7 to 8?
9-12?
Teens?

Supernatural, injury, thunder, darkness, sleeping alone, separation
Supernatural, darkness, media events, staying alone, injury.
Tests, school performance, injury, appearance, thunder/lightning, death, darkness
Social performance, sexuality

71

Describe separation anxiety disorder
Describe school phobia

The child feels severe anxiety and panic when separated from their parent, it's more common among girls and is precipitated by a stressful situation.
School phobia is also called school refusal, it can be a form of SA disorder but it can also be caused by depression or other phobias.

72

What was the cause of childhood fears according to the biological approach?
What about the behaviourists?
Traditional psychoanalysts?
Contemporary psychoanalysts?

Physiological abnormalities
Classical conditioning
Repression and displacement
Relationship confusion and self fragmentation

73

What was the cause of childhood fears according to the biological approach?
What about the behaviourists?
Traditional psychoanalysts?
Contemporary psychoanalysts?

Physiological abnormalities
Classical conditioning
Repression and displacement
Relationship confusion and self fragmentation

74

List some facts about childhood depression

Before the 1920s, not many clinicians believed in childhood depression. The symptoms include: persistent crying, negative self concept, decreased activity, social withdrawal and suicidal thoughts. Before the age of 11 there aren't any sex differences but by 16, there are twice as many girls with childhood depression. There are many causes: Loss, learned helplessness, negative cognitive bias, low norepinephrine activity, major change, rejection and abuse. Many children with depression had parents with mental health problems (mainly depression). The best treatments are CBT, family therapy and social skills training. Studies haven't supported the effectiveness of antidepressants.

75

List some facts about childhood depression

Before the 1920s, not many clinicians believed in childhood depression. The symptoms include: persistent crying, negative self concept, decreased activity, social withdrawal and suicidal thoughts. Before the age of 11 there aren't any sex differences but by 16, there are twice as many girls with childhood depression. There are many causes: Loss, learned helplessness, negative cognitive bias, low norepinephrine activity, major change, rejection and abuse. Many children with depression had parents with mental health problems (mainly depression). The best treatments are CBT, family therapy and social skills training. Studies haven't supported the effectiveness of antidepressants.

76

List some types of disruptive behaviour disorders, describe each

Oppositional defiant disorder: Repeated arguments with adults, temper easily lost, swearing, anger, resentment, blaming others for your mistakes
Conduct disorder: This is more severe, children violate others' basic human rights via cruel and criminal behaviour. It usually begins before age 10 and up to 16% of boys have it and up to 9% of girls. Half of the arrested juveniles are recidivists. Family interventions are the most effective because the disorder emerges in a hostile family environment. This works most with children younger than 13.

77

Describe disruptive behaviour disorders in general

These behaviour disorders are caused by genes, antisocial traits, drugs, poverty and family dysfunction. Most homicides, rapes and robberies are committed by people aged 15-20 one study found. The treatments with limited effectiveness: community based residential programs, school based interventions, skill training techniques, institutionalisation in juvenile centres (can increase deviance), early intervention. Drug therapy is new technique that is recommended.

78

Describe disruptive behaviour disorders in general

These behaviour disorders are caused by genes, antisocial traits, drugs, poverty and family dysfunction. Most homicides, rapes and robberies are committed by people aged 15-20 one study found. The treatments with limited effectiveness: community based residential programs, school based interventions, skill training techniques, institutionalisation in juvenile centres (can increase deviance), early intervention. Drug therapy is new technique that is recommended.

79

Describe the two types of conduct disorder (CD)
Describe the etiology of CD

Life course persistent (which is up to 15 times more common in boys, this can develop into lower levels of education, partner abuse, violent behaviour) and adolescence limited.
Genes: Heritability, twin studies show mixed results and the adoption studies only focused on criminal behaviour, not the disorder. Studies showed that up to 50% of antisocial behaviour is heritable but it has more influence in childhood compared to adolescence. However, the genes and environment still interact, e.g. Caspi found that child abuse and low maoa activity results in CD.
Neurobiology: poor verbal skills, difficulty with executive functioning, low IQ, lower levels of skin conductance.
Psychological: Deficient moral development, lack of empathy, reinforced aggression, harsh parenting, lack of parental monitoring, cognitive bias (seeing neutral acts as hostile).
Peers and sociocultural: Rejection, affiliation with deviant peers, poverty, urban environment, more african american males are delinquent when in bad environments but it isn't linked to race.

80

Describe the two types of conduct disorder (CD)
Describe the etiology of CD

Life course persistent (which is up to 15 times more common in boys, this can develop into lower levels of education, partner abuse, violent behaviour) and adolescence limited.
Genes: Heritability, twin studies show mixed results and the adoption studies only focused on criminal behaviour, not the disorder. Studies showed that up to 50% of antisocial behaviour is heritable but it has more influence in childhood compared to adolescence. However, the genes and environment still interact, e.g. Caspi found that child abuse and low maoa activity results in CD.
Neurobiology: poor verbal skills, difficulty with executive functioning, low IQ, lower levels of skin conductance.
Psychological: Deficient moral development, lack of empathy, reinforced aggression, harsh parenting, lack of parental monitoring, cognitive bias (seeing neutral acts as hostile).
Peers and sociocultural: Rejection, affiliation with deviant peers, poverty, urban environment, more african american males are delinquent when in bad environments but it isn't linked to race.

81

List the results of some longitudinal childhood intervention studies

Kauai study: 2/3 of the children were at high risk of developing a disorder because they were living in an environment with parental alcoholism, poverty and parental mental illness.
Cambridge study: Children in poorer families, who suffer neglect and live in a large family are at higher risk
Dunedin study: Children are at higher risk when there's parental disharmony and multiple caregivers.
Christchurch study: Dysfunctional and disordered families put children at higher risks
Australian temperament project: Boys were at more risk

82

Describe some actual childhood interventions

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83

Describe some actual childhood interventions

Head start: It started from the american civil rights movement. It began in the US in 1965 and was aimed at poor, inner city african american children. It included sesame street but it had poor program integrity so the intervention stopped.
Perry preschool program, Chicago child parent centre program, yale child welfare research program, syracuse university family development research program and houston parent child development centre.

84

What are the aims of early childhood interventions?
Do they work?

To aid parents and to help children achieve academically, they involve long term follow up, the children showed good academic performance and a decrease in delinquency which wasn't the intended outcome. This causes a significant decrease in costs per child as there is less court time and penal procedures.

85

What are the aims of early childhood interventions?
Do they work?

To aid parents and to help children achieve academically, they involve long term follow up, the children showed good academic performance and a decrease in delinquency which wasn't the intended outcome. This causes a significant decrease in costs per child as there is less court time and penal procedures.

86

Why do childhood interventions work?

Because they focus on mother child relationships and parental support, they also provide day care facilities free off abuse and neglect and they help children enjoy school more.

87

What are the symptoms of ADHD?
What does ADHD stand for?
What are the types of ADHD?

They are overactive, impulsive and attend poorly to tasks.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Predominantly inattentive type, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type/hyperactivity and combined type.

88

How prevalent is ADHD?
When are the symptoms most and least visible?

Up to 5% of school children have it, 80% are boys.
Most visible: At home, school, work and social situations
Least visible: Novel settings, one on one situations, frequent reinforcement and when under strict control.

89

How prevalent is ADHD?
When are the symptoms most and least visible?

Up to 5% of school children have it, 80% are boys.
Most visible: At home, school, work and social situations
Least visible: Novel settings, one on one situations, frequent reinforcement and when under strict control.

90

What causes ADHD?
How do you treat it?

There are multiple interacting causes, some biological and others psychological.
Stimulant drugs like ritalin (methylphenidate)

91

What causes ADHD,briefly, you will explain in more detail later?
How do you treat it?

There are multiple interacting causes, some biological and others psychological.
Stimulant drugs like ritalin (methylphenidate)

92

What did Hinshaw (2006) find?

He studied an ethnically diverse group of girls. He found that girls with the combined type

93

What did Hinshaw (2006) find?

He studied an ethnically diverse group of girls. He found that girls with the combined type were more disruptive than inattentive type, more likely to have a comorbid diagnosis with CD or oppositional defiant disorder than people without ADHD, viewed more negatively by peers compared to no ADHD or inattentive. Girls with the inattentive type were viewed more negatively than girls without ADHD. Girls with ADHD are more likely to feel anxious and depressed, show neurological deficits like poor planning and have symptoms for eating disorders and/or substance abuse by adolescence.

94

Describe the etiology of ADHD in detail

Adoptions studies have shown that ADHD is heritable by up to 80% and there are two dopamine genes involved; DRD4 (dopamine receptor gene) and DAT1 (dopamine transporter gene, mixed support for this gene though). The genes only cause increased risk when there is prenatal maternal nicotine/alcohol.
Neurobiology has shown that children with ADHD have smaller dopaminergic areas (frontal lobes, globus pallidus etc.) and they have poorer performance on frontal lobe function.
Perinatal and prenatal factors are involved, e.g. low birth weight (maternal warmth can decrease this), maternal tobacco and alcohol use.
Environmental toxins are also involved. A small amount of evidence has shown that food additives can have a small impact. There is no evidence for refined sugars. Tobacco in the utero is associated with ADHD symptoms and can damage the dopaminergic system causing behavioural disinhibition.
Parent-child relationships can affect it. If the parent gives more commands and have more negative interactions with the child then ADHD development is at increased risk. Family factors don't cause ADHD but they can maintain it and they interact with biological factors.

95

Describe the etiology of ADHD in detail

Adoptions studies have shown that ADHD is heritable by up to 80% and there are two dopamine genes involved; DRD4 (dopamine receptor gene) and DAT1 (dopamine transporter gene, mixed support for this gene though). The genes only cause increased risk when there is prenatal maternal nicotine/alcohol.
Neurobiology has shown that children with ADHD have smaller dopaminergic areas (frontal lobes, globus pallidus etc.) and they have poorer performance on frontal lobe function.
Perinatal and prenatal factors are involved, e.g. low birth weight (maternal warmth can decrease this), maternal tobacco and alcohol use.
Environmental toxins are also involved. A small amount of evidence has shown that food additives can have a small impact. There is no evidence for refined sugars. Tobacco in the utero is associated with ADHD symptoms and can damage the dopaminergic system causing behavioural disinhibition.
Parent-child relationships can affect it. If the parent gives more commands and have more negative interactions with the child then ADHD development is at increased risk. Family factors don't cause ADHD but they can maintain it and they interact with biological factors.

96

Describe the treatments of ADHD in detail

Stimulant medications have been shown to reduce disruptive behaviour, improve interactions with parents, teachers and peers, improve concentration and goal-directed behaviour and reduce aggression. However, there are some side effects; loss of appetite, weight loss and sleep problems.
Meds and behavioural therapy is slightly better than just meds as it also improves social skills. However, there is no difference three years later. Meds work better on some children so behaviour therapy helps the children that the meds are less effective on.
Psychological treatments include parental training, classroom management, behaviour monitoring and appropriate reinforcement.
Supportive classrooms help, it includes brief assignments, immediate feedback, task-focused style and regular exercise breaks.

97

Describe the treatments of ADHD in detail

Stimulant medications have been shown to reduce disruptive behaviour, improve interactions with parents, teachers and peers, improve concentration and goal-directed behaviour and reduce aggression. However, there are some side effects; loss of appetite, weight loss and sleep problems.
Meds and behavioural therapy is slightly better than just meds as it also improves social skills. However, there is no difference three years later. Meds work better on some children so behaviour therapy helps the children that the meds are less effective on.
Psychological treatments include parental training, classroom management, behaviour monitoring and appropriate reinforcement.
Supportive classrooms help, it includes brief assignments, immediate feedback, task-focused style and regular exercise breaks.

98

Describe elimination disorders

Enuresis is involuntary urination which is usually nocturnal but it can be diurnal. 7% of boys at age 5 have but only 3% at age 10. £5 of girls have it at age 5 and 2% at age 10. It can carry on from infancy and maybe a reaction to stress. Psychodynamic theorists believe that its a symbol to other conflicts. Family systems theorists believe that it's anxiety aroused by disturbed family interactions. Behaviourists see it as failed toilet training. Behavioural treatments are most successful, e.g. bell and pad that rings when urination occurs.
Encopresis is involuntary and inappropriate defecation. It's less common and starts at about age 4, it's more common in boys and 1% of 5 year olds have it. It occurs mainly during the day in the late afternoon and doesn't occur at night. It causes shame and embarrassment so is more serious than enuresis. The best treatments are behavioural, medicinal or family therapy.

99

Describe elimination disorders

Enuresis is involuntary urination which is usually nocturnal but it can be diurnal. 7% of boys at age 5 have but only 3% at age 10. £5 of girls have it at age 5 and 2% at age 10. It can carry on from infancy and maybe a reaction to stress. Psychodynamic theorists believe that its a symbol to other conflicts. Family systems theorists believe that it's anxiety aroused by disturbed family interactions. Behaviourists see it as failed toilet training. Behavioural treatments are most successful, e.g. bell and pad that rings when urination occurs.
Encopresis is involuntary and inappropriate defecation. It's less common and starts at about age 4, it's more common in boys and 1% of 5 year olds have it. It occurs mainly during the day in the late afternoon and doesn't occur at night. It causes shame and embarrassment so is more serious than enuresis. The best treatments are behavioural, medicinal or family therapy.

100

Briefly describe disorders of learning, coordination and communication

Inadequate development in these areas are more common in boys and people with these problems are at increased risk of suicide and depression.

101

List some learning and coordination disorders

Learning: Mathematics disorder, disorder of written expression and dyslexia/ reading disorder.
Developmental coordination disorder involves poor motor coordination, 6% of children between 5 and 11 years have it.

102

List some learning and coordination disorders

Learning: Mathematics disorder, disorder of written expression and dyslexia/ reading disorder.
Developmental coordination disorder involves poor motor coordination, 6% of children between 5 and 11 years have it.

103

Describe some communication disorders in detail

Expressive language disorder: Limited, inaccurate vocabulary, trouble acquiring new words, they shorten sentences and omit critical parts of sentences, words are ordered normally. 3-10% of children have it.
Mixed receptive/expressive language disorder: Difficulty comprehending and expressing language. Interferes with academic achievement and daily activities. 3% of schoolchildren have it.
1% of children stutter or display disturbances in timing and fluency of speech. 75% of them are boys.

104

What causes learning, coordination and communication disorders?

Genetic defects, birth injuries, lead poisoning, inappropriate diet, sensory dysfunction, poor teaching.
The perceptual deficit theory believes that the disorders are caused due to the products of problems in perceptual processing.
Academic instruction theory believes that learning disorders reflect deficiencies in teaching.

105

What causes learning, coordination and communication disorders?

Genetic defects, birth injuries, lead poisoning, inappropriate diet, sensory dysfunction, poor teaching.
The perceptual deficit theory believes that the disorders are caused due to the products of problems in perceptual processing.
Academic instruction theory believes that learning disorders reflect deficiencies in teaching.

106

Describe the diagnosis of Autistic spectrum disorder

Kanner identified it in 1943. It's grouped in the DSM as pervasive developmental disorders. It's characterised by extreme unresponsiveness to others, poor communication and bizarre responses. It appears before age 3.

107

Describe the prevalence of Autistic spectrum disorder

2-5/ 10,000 children have it. 80% are boys. 2 out of 3 remain severely impaired into adulthood. 1 in 6 makes a fair adjustment. Autistic people with a higher IQ and better language have a more promising future, this is Asperger's syndrome.

108

Describe the prevalence of Autistic spectrum disorder

2-5/ 10,000 children have it. 80% are boys. 2 out of 3 remain severely impaired into adulthood. 1 in 6 makes a fair adjustment. Autistic people with a higher IQ and better language have a more promising future, this is Asperger's syndrome.

109

Describe the characteristics of children with Autism

Unresponsive and uninterested in people. They often have echolalia which is when you copy phrases said by others repeatedly. Delayed echolalia is when you repeat the phrase hours or days later. They can have prenominal reversal which is when they say you instead of I. Some use neologisms and metaphoric language, some have nominal aphasia (difficulty naming objects), many have incorrect speech inflections and improper facial expressions/gestures. They speak spontaneously and have difficulty understanding speech. They display ritualistic and repetitive behaviours that are difficult to change. Some engage in self-stimulatory or self-injurious behaviours.

110

Describe the characteristics of children with Autism

Unresponsive and uninterested in people. They often have echolalia which is when you copy phrases said by others repeatedly. Delayed echolalia is when you repeat the phrase hours or days later. They can have prenominal reversal which is when they say you instead of I. Some use neologisms and metaphoric language, some have nominal aphasia (difficulty naming objects), many have incorrect speech inflections and improper facial expressions/gestures. They speak spontaneously and have difficulty understanding speech. They display ritualistic and repetitive behaviours that are difficult to change. Some engage in self-stimulatory or self-injurious behaviours.

111

What did Spezio's study (2007) find?

People with autism concentrate on different parts of the face compared to non-autistic people. They focus their gaze on mouth regions and almost neglect the eyes which could contribute to their difficulty in perceiving emotion.

112

Describe the etiology of Austim

Beetleheim's psychoanalytic theory believes that rejecting and unresponsive parents and child withdrawal causes autism but this isn't supported empirically.
Twin studies have shown 60-90% concordance and they have found deletions on chromosome 16.
They have larger brains (not at birth though) perhaps because the neurons aren't being pruned. The overgrown areas tend to be front, temporal and cerebellar areas, these are linked to language, social and emotion.

113

Describe the etiology of Austim

Beetleheim's psychoanalytic theory believes that rejecting and unresponsive parents and child withdrawal causes autism but this isn't supported empirically.
Twin studies have shown 60-90% concordance and they have found deletions on chromosome 16.
They have larger brains (not at birth though) perhaps because the neurons aren't being pruned. The overgrown areas tend to be front, temporal and cerebellar areas, these are linked to language, social and emotions.

114

Describe the etiology of Austim

Beetleheim's psychoanalytic theory believes that rejecting and unresponsive parents and child withdrawal causes autism but this isn't supported empirically.
Twin studies have shown 60-90% concordance and they have found deletions on chromosome 16.
They have larger brains (not at birth though) perhaps because the neurons aren't being pruned. The overgrown areas tend to be front, temporal and cerebellar areas, these are linked to language, social functions and emotions.

115

Describe the etiology of Austim

Beetleheim's psychoanalytic theory believes that rejecting and unresponsive parents and child withdrawal causes autism but this isn't supported empirically.
Twin studies have shown 60-90% concordance and they have found deletions on chromosome 16.
They have larger brains (not at birth though) perhaps because the neurons aren't being pruned. The overgrown areas tend to be front, temporal and cerebellar areas, these are linked to language, social functions and emotions.

116

Describe the treatment of Autism

Intensive operant conditioning, parental training, pivotal response treatment which focuses on increasing the child's motivation and responsiveness compared to focusing on discrete behaviours, joint attention intervention and symbolic play which improves expression and attention, anti-psychotic medication (haloperidol/haldol) which reduces aggression and stereotyped motor behaviour but it doesn't increase language function and interpersonal relationships.

117

Describe Asperger's syndrome

This is a less severe version of autism which causes poor social relationships and rigid stereotyped behaviours. However, language and intelligence is still intact. It's more common than previously thought in the adult population.