Flashcards in Lecture 16: Human and animal Deck (16):
Are emotions universal?
Some emotions are and some aren't. Stress is universal and although it's not an emotion, it's a symptom of negative emotions like anxiety. This means that some emotions must be genetically based, it could be involved with the SNS which is involved with stress or it could be to do with the limbic system as amygdala is quickly activated after you scream. It could be to do with the autonomic nervous system like increased heart rate or it could be the endocrine system which increases the release of cortisol metabolites during stress.
Finish the sentence
If emotions are universal then...
Give some research to back up the idea that some emotions are universal and emotions are developmental.
... we could find comparable behaviours across human cultures and we could find if they're present in early development.
Sauter 2010 found that there is a cross cultural recognition of emotional sounds. It has also been found that a babies cries intensifies as it ages, showing emotional development.
Do emotions have an evolutionary basis?
Emotions are deeply grounded in mammal biology so there must be evidence of phylogenetic continuity of emotions. However, research has shown that there isn't any continuity so it's not believed to be evolutionarily based. Darwin did work into exploring the evolution of emotions as dogs and monkeys show some emotions.
Which emotions are universal and are basic emotions according to Ekman?
These are behaviourally and physiologically distinct and other emotions developed from these.
How do people express emotions?
Vocal expressions; different frequencies represent different emotions: Morton 1997
Facial expressions; Ekman 1976 found different muscle movements for different emotions by using the facial action coding system.
Bodily movements; when a gorilla is tickled in moves in a certain way to show excitement and joy
Describe one way of measuring emotions (sounds)
Russell's Valence-Arousal model; He measured continuous changes like music perception to see and compare the effects it had on your emotions, e.g. high intensity and positive sounds can make you feel joy.
Describe how Fredrickson 2003 measured emotions
She believed that negative and positive emotions need different theoretical models and need to be treated differently. This is because negative emotions serve immediate needs and positive emotions serve over long periods. From this, she focused on positive emotions and developed the Broaden and Build theory. This theory focuses on how people use positive emotions to solve problems for personal growth and development. They help broaden the mindset via a thought-action repertoire, and therefore help build personal resources like physical, social, intellectual and psychological ones. For example, joy sparks the urge to play, which as a consequence go on to build one's personal resources, like increased coping and survival. Negative emotions cause narrow mindsets.
Describe positive social expressions
They're sophisticated tools of communication. Laughter has many advantages, for example, it prolongs a conversations and it forms and maintains social relationships. There are two types of laughter; voiced and unvoiced. A voiced laughter sounds song like and involves a periodic vocal fold vibration sounds like 'Haha', it's more positive than unvoiced and the increased use of voiced laughter occurred later in evolution. Unvoiced laughter sounds snort like and there is no vowel sound, it sounds like exhalation.
How do you test for emotions if your participants are in different moods and have different personalities?
Firstly, you use a primer to induce the participants into an emotional state. You then get them to complete a questionnaire and rate emotional stimuli. After this, you do a within subjects analysis.
Describe some confusions in processing emotions
If different contexts, emotions can mean differently things or can be displayed differently. For example, laughter is considered positive, but there's also pathological laughter. Also, your social surrounding can influence you feeling of positiveness, e.g. are you peaceful or enthusiastic.
Describe unconscious emotions
Dimberg 2000 found that facial expressions can be evoked unconsciously. He created the target mask complex where he showed the participants the target stimuli (expressing the emotion) for 30 milliseconds, directly followed by a neutral stimuli for 5 seconds. The participants responded to the target stimuli without being aware of it. In the happy group, their zygomatic major was activated and in the angry group, their corrugator supercilii was activated. The neutral faces were added to ensure that the test was standardised, they weren't a control.
Discuss hemispheric specialisation in terms of processing emotions
The right hemisphere hypothesis states that this hemisphere is dominant for emotional recognition. This follows the traditional view that brain functions are lateralised.
The valence hypothesis states that the right hemisphere is dominant for negative emotions and vice versa for positive emotions. This is the lateralisation of emotions.
There is empirical research that supports both hypotheses.
When perceiving emotions, what happens to the receiver?
They show the same behaviour automatically or via a controlled response.
They go through the same behaviour; emotional contagion
They understand the emotions and respond empathetically
Or they're unaffected.
Mirror neurons; the same activations happen when you see goal-directed behaviours and when you do goal-directed behaviours.
List the social advantages emotions have
They increase emotional intelligence and are pervasive and sophisticated. For example, the four branch model claims emotions provide us with four skills; perceiving emotions, facilitating thought to solve problems, understanding and comprehending emotions and regulating and managing emotions to achieve goals.
What happens if you suppress your emotions?
Gross 1998 found that people who suppress disgust have physical costs. Students watched videos that elicited disgust and were then questioned and there arousal was measured. The control group just watched the video. The suppressed group had heightened physical arousal. The reappraisal group who were emotionally detached, had no change in arousal but showed less disgust.