Flashcards in Lecture 9: Everyday life Deck (35):
Describe the sexual timeline
1905: Freud provided misinformation about the female orgasm in the three essays on sexuality.
1953: Kinsey published the first survey on women's sexual habits
1960: FDA approves birth control pills
1965: Supreme court states that the government can't control the use of birth control in marriage
1966: Masters found that 50% of marriages had sexual inadequacy
1981: Husbands can be prosecuted for raping their wives (New jersey)
1998: Viagra is approved and sold
Why did Kellogg make the cereal?
The vegetarian believed that the bland diet would decrease sexual desire.
How has society changed in terms of child-adult sexual relationships?
1931: An 11 year old girl was in court for having sex repeatedly with a 60 year old, the man was refused of prison for "a girl like that".
1998: Rind was vastly disagreed with when he said child-adult relations don't have catastrophic consequences.
How many states still ban the cohabitation unmarried people?
How many ban sex before marriage?
What percentage of students have hooked up with someone after alcohol?
19% of internet visits are to adult websites
Females mostly join chat rooms, males visit visual erotica. 3% show sexually compulsive behaviour. 2/3 of visitors to children/teen's chat rooms are adults seeking to engage in sex talk and swap porn.
Discuss the experience of sexual dysfunction
It's very common and it can cause psychological effects in many, like sexual frustration, guilt, loss of self esteem and emotional problems. However, most dysfunctions can be treated with relatively brief therapy. There are no sexuality differences.
Describe the self reports of males and females in terms of sexual behaviour
Men reported to give oral sex more than women claimed to receive it, same with males receiving oral. They also claimed to have more sexual partners. So basically men exaggerated and women lie to hide their sexual behaviour.
Describe the classification of sexual dysfunctions
Psychophysiological disorders that make it impossible for an individual to have or enjoy coitus. There are 4 stages in the sexual response cycle and each stage has a number of disorders (this helps diagnosis). The stages: Desire, arousal, orgasm and resolution, only the first 3 stages can be affect by dysfunction.
List the types of dysfunctions in the desire stage
Hypoactive sexual desire, lack of interest in sex, sexual aversion, sex in unpleasant so is avoided.
List the types of dysfunctions in the arousal stage
Male erectile disorder (people say it's impotence) and female arousal disorder (people say frigidity)
Describe what happens during the arousal stage
Increased heart rate, muscle tension, blood pressure, respiration, pelvic vasocongestion leading to erection/swelling of the clitoris and lubrication in the labia and vagina.
List the most common sexual dysfunction of the orgasm stage for men
What about a rare one?
What is the disorder for women in terms of the orgasm stage?
Inhibited male orgasm
Inhibited female orgasm
What are the two types of sexual pain disorders?
Vaginismus; spastic contractions of the muscles around the outer third of the vagina, preventing the entry of the penis
Dyspareunia; Painful intercourse
What are the two main categories of sexual dysfunctions (2 in each)
Lifelong vs not lifelong
Global vs specific
Discuss the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions
These statistics aren't fully accurate as it's hard.
25% refusal rates for sex surveys, the ones who respond are usually more liberal and experienced than the norm
24% suffer from some type of dysfunction, substance abuse is the only disorder that's more common.
15% of men have hypoactive sexual desire, erectile disorder is most common among older men and premature ejaculation is most common among men below age 30.
Up to 3% have inhibited male orgasm
Up to 35% of women have hypoactive sexual desire
Up to 48% of women have had arousal disorders, 10-15% rarely experience orgasms, but this isn't a dysfunction
20% occasionally experience pain during intercourse, less than 1% have vaginismus
What are the causes of sexual dysfunction?
Childhood learning, problematic attitudes, biological factors, individual psychodynamic factors relationship issues have all shown to be invovled in some way.
What factors predict poor sexual functioning?
Psychological: Depression, anxiety, performance focus, routine, low self esteem, uncomfortable environment, rigid, narrow attitude, negative thoughts about sex.
Physical: Smoking, alcohol, cardiovascular problems, diabetes, neurological problems, low physiological arousal, SSRI meds, antihypertensive meds, drugs.
Social and sexual history: Rape, sexual abuse, relationship problems, poor communication, long periods of abstinence, history of hurried sex.
What is the anxiety and sexual dysfunction cycle?
The initial failure to perform sexually can lead to self doubts, leading to anticipatory worry, leading to performance anxiety, leading to repeated failure, then this repeats itself.
Describe the treatment of sexual dysfunctions throughout the years
50s/60s: Behavioural treatments began. However, the anxiety reduction approach isn't effective when the dysfunction is caused by misinformation, negative attitudes and lack of sexual techniques.
1970: Masters and Johnson released the book 'Human sexual inadequacy' which revolutionised treatment
The two ways to measure function are: penile plethysmograph and a vaginal plethsmograph
Sex therapy involves assessment and conceptualisation of the problem, emphasising mutual responsibility, sex therapists then provide accurate information about sexuality, then the patient's attitudes, cognitions and beleifs are changed appropriately. Performance anxiety is then eliminated and so is the spectator role through sensate focus and non demand pleasuring. After this, they change destructive lifestyles and marital problems.
How is hypoactive sexual desire treated?
What about erectile dysfunction?
The four element sequential model is used to treat hypoactive sexual desire and aversion, it involves affectual awareness, insight, cognitive and emotional change and behavioural interventions.
They're taught to reduce performance anxiety and increase stimulation via stuffing and teasing. Major problems can be treated via penile prosthesis, vacuum erection device, vascular surgery.
How is premature ejaculation treated?
What about inhibited male orgasm?
Direct behaviour retraining techniques like top start and squeezing techniques.
Reducing performance anxiety and ensuring adequate stimulation.
How do you treat female arousal/orgasm dysfunctions?
Self exploration, body awareness and directed masturbation training.
Contracting and relaxing the pubococcygeal muscle.
What are paraphilias?
People who have recurrent and intense sexual urges or fantasies involving non-human objects, children, non-consenting adults, suffering or humiliation. They're only diagnosed if they act upon the urges or if they feel extreme guilt. They're quite prevalent, mostly men, but not many people are treated.
What is fetishism?
People who use an inanimate object or body part to achieve sexual arousal. This is often exclusive. It usually begins in adolescence and some commit thievery to obtain the inanimate objects.
Psychodynamic theorists: Defence mechanisms
Behaviourists: Treat it via aversion therapy, masturbatory satiation or covert sensitisation.
What is transvestic fetishism?
Transvestism/ cross dressing is the need to dress in clothes of the opposite sex to feel sexual arousal. Most prevalent in heterosexual males. Many are hostile, self-centered and lack intimacy. Their marriages are often discordant.
What is paedophilia?
People who achieve sexual gratification via children. It usually develops in adolescence and many are married and have other sexual difficulties. Many abuse alcohol. It's treated via aversion therapy, orgasmic reorientation and relapse-prevention training.
What cognitive distortions do paraphilias usually have?
Misattributing blame, minimising sexual intent, debasing the victim, minimising consequences, deflecting censure and justification.
What is exhibitionism?
Also known as the flasher. They act out sexually arousing fantasies by exposing their genitals to someone to produce a shock reaction. The urges intensify when under stress, most are married but have an unsatisfactory sexual relationship. It's treated via aversion therapy, arousal reorientation and social skills training.
What is voyeurism?
Someone who has recurrent and intense desires to secretly observe people dress or undress. Some masturbate whilst watching, it can be chronic and it usually begins before age 15. It can be a way to exercise power over others which is motivated via inadequacy and social inhibition.
Psychodynamic: An attempt to reduce fear of castration
Behaviourists: It's learned via a chance of secret observation of a sexually arousing scene.
What is frotteurism?
Recurrent and sexual urges to touch or rub against a non-consenting person. They fantasise that they have a caring relationship with the victim. It usually begins in adolescence but diminishes.
What is sexual masochism?
Sexual urges to be humiliated, beaten, bound or made to suffer. They act on this in a relationship or autoeroticism. It usually begins in childhood but is acted out in adulthood. Developed via classical conditioning.
Describe a type of sexual masochism
Autoerotic asphyxia: Causing a fatal cerebral via hanging, suffocating or strangling themselves during masturbation.
What is sexual sadism?
Mostly men. Aroused by the infliction of physical or psychological suffering. They fantasize about having total control over someone.
Behaviourists: Classical conditioning via receiving pain during arousal.
Psychodynamic and cognitive: Feelings of sexual inadequacy.