Flashcards in Lecture 8: Everyday life Deck (24):
Describe the physical and behavioural/psychological aspects in the addiction process
It involves tolerance and withdrawal. Tolerance is the body's decreased response to repeated administrations of a drug. Withdrawal is when prolonged abuse changes the body to an extent that it's affected when the substance isn't taken.
Behavioural and psychological: If someone is psychologically dependent then they will continue to take it, even if there's adverse social and medical consequences and behave as if the effects are needed for well being.
How is substance abuse categorised?
Failure to fulfil major obligations, exposure to physical dangers (drink driving), legal problems because of substance abuse, persistent social or interpersonal problems (spouse arguments).
Describe the diagnosis of substance abuse
You must have at least 3 of the 7 symptoms
3. Larger amounts are taken over time
4. Persistent desire and unsuccessful attempts to cut down
5. A lot of time spent trying to get the substance, take it and recover from it
6. Social, occupational or recreational activites are given up or reduced because of the substance abuse
7. It's continued even though it has persistent and recurrent phsyical or psychological problems due to the substance
Describe the prevalence of substance abuse disorders
21% of under 16s have taken drugs in the past year, 12% in the last month. 8% of 11 year olds in the last year and 38% of 15 year olds. Cannabis is most prevalent with 13% using it. 1% of people have used heroin in the last year and 1% cocaine. 16-24 year olds: 28% in the last year, 18% in the last month. Cannabis most prevalent again with 26%. In the last year, 5% had used ecstasy/cocaine, 4% amphetamines/poppers, 1% crack.
Describe the prevalence and use of alcohol
In 2009, 5500+ males and just under 3000 females died from alcohol. It's used by ingesting it and there is a rapid absorption into the bloodstream and slow removal.
Describe what alcohol is and its effects
It's a sedative hypnotic agent that has a temporary and nonspecific depressive effect on the CNS.
It's effects: trauma, accidents, foetal alcohol syndrome, cirrhosis, anxiety, paranoia, 200% tolerance, withdrawal can cause headaches, nausea, depression, convulsion, DTs, hallucinations. 20% of males and 8% of males have used alcohol.
Describe alcohol dependence
Tolerance and withdrawal reactions. Withdrawal can lead to anxiety, depression, insomnia, weakness. DT stands for delirium tremens, it means withdrawal that includes hallucinations. However, alcohol tolerance is common. It's usually part of poly-drug abuse, up to 85% of alcohol drinkers smoke.
Describe the breakdown of alcohol and its biological effects short term
It's absorbed into the blood from the stomach. Alcohol is metabolised by the liver very slowly. It acts within the brain and stimulates GABA receptors (reduces tension), it increases dopamine and serotonin levels (pleasure) and it inhibits glutamate receptors (cognitive actions)
Describe the long term actions of alcohol
Alcoholics have reduced food intake when drinking, there is no nutrient value in alcohol, it impairs food digestion, it can result in vitamin B deficiency, it can lead to brain damage, amnesia, Wernicke-Korsakoff's syndrome, it kills brain cells leading to a loss in grey matter in the temporal lobes and it supresses the immune system.
What is nicotine and what effect does it have?
What are the long term health risks?
It's the addicting agent of tobacco, it's a stimulant-euphorant. It's fast acting and increases arousal by stimulating nicotine receptors and dopmine neurons. It's the most highly addictive drug due to dopamine.
Lung and throat cancer, cardiovascular disorders, emphysema, rapid tolerance and withdrawal can persist for months. Withdrawal can cause irritability, loss of concentration, decreased metabolic rate and cravings.
Describe the prevelance of nicotine use
It was at its lowest in 2007, with 21% aged 16 or over smoking. 66% said they wanted to give up. 17% light up within 5 minutes of waking, 35% of them smoke 20+ a day compared to 3% who smoke less than 10 a day. Heavier smokers are less likely to want to give up, people who smoke less than 20 a day are most likely to give up. 86% that want to give up mention one health reason, then cost (27%), then family pressure, then children. Married people smoke less than singles, proffessional jobs are less than manual. It's highest among 20-24 years and least common in 60+ year olds.
Describe the forms and effects of cannabis
Marijuana, hashish, resin and THC. It's usually smoked, quickly absorbed into the lungs and the THC is transported to the brain.
Effects: Cannabis amotivational syndrome (after long term use), lethargy, unpleasant mood, inability to get pleasure from activities, short term memory loss, compromised lung structure and function and possibly addiction (lol not really)
What are the therapeutic benefits of cannabis?
Reduce nausea, reduce loss of apetite assocaited with chemo, reduce pain signalling, treat the discomfort of AIDS, reduce pressure in the eye associated with glaucoma.
Is marijuana a stepping stone?
40% don't move on to drugs like heroin or cocaine. Many who take heroin or cocaine started with marijuana. The network theory is more applicable; marijuana is only one of many contributing factors.
What are the two types of opioids? Give examples.
What effects do they have?
Natural; opium, morphine, heroin, codeine.
Synthetic; methadone, dilaudid.
A profound, generalised and abiding sedative, an anasthetic and a euphorant effect on the CNS. They bind to opiate receptors in the brain and block the experience of emotional and physical pain.
Describe the addiction process of opioids?
Tolerance happens rapidly, it can be up to 5000%, withdrawal can happen within 6-8 hours of injection. There is a high overdose risk and it's one the rarest drugs but it's highly addictive.
List examples of sedatives, hypnotics and anxiolytics
What effect do they have?
Barbiturates aka downers, minor tranquillisers like xanax, analgesics.
They have a depressant and nonspecific depressant effect on the CNS and can produce fatal overdoses. Tolerance is rapid, up to 1000% and there are severe withdrawal reactions that can include death, they need close medical supervision during withdrawal.
Give examples of stimulants and what effects they have
These are uppers, like cocaine, amphetamines like speed and caffeine. They act on the brain and SNS to increase alertness and motor activity.
Describe the effects of amphetamines and cocaine, how are they taken? Describe the risks of them
What about ephedrine
They increase the release of norepinephrine and dopamine and blocks the reuptake of them. They are taken orally or intravenously, they are addicting, there is tolerance but it's not that understood, withdrawal can be severe. Overdose can result in chills, nausea, paranoid breakdown, heart attack, death.
It's a variant of amphetamine which induces alertness and reduces appetite.
List the natural and synthetic types of hallucinogens?
Describe the effects of one type
Natural: Peyote, mescaline, psilocybin
Synthetic: LSD; lysergic acid diethylamide, MDMA/ecstasy. Most of these are rare, excluding ecstasy, there isn't much dependence.
LSD: Synesthesia (blending sensory information), subjective time is slowed, rapid shifts in mood, effects depend on your setting.
Describe the effects MDMA
It increases the release of serotonin which can cause overheating and coagulation. Long term dangers include irreversible serotonin depletion, memory problems.
Describe the aetiology of substance abuse
Sociocultural, psychological and biological causes, they relate differently depending on the substance.
Alcohol; The unitary disease model (alcoholics differ from non-alcoholics in terms of psychological predispositions and allergic sensitivity).
Sociocultural: Cultural attitudes, drinking patterns, easily available, family variables, social milieu, media.
Psychological variables: Mood alteration (believing drugs are reinforcing due to enhancing moods or getting rid of negative ones), tension reduction hypothesis (it reduces at state of drive/fear or aversive mental states (anxiety/conflict), this relies on operant conditioning and ignores cognitive, social and biological influences. Expectancy theory; Belief that they exert greater control over psychological and behavioural functioning, more so than the pharmacological drug. Positive expectancies correlate with increased drug use.
Anderson found that alcohol is expected to: help events seem positive and pleasurable, more social and physical pleasure, enhanced sexual experience, feelings of more personal dominance, more assertiveness, relieves subjective tension. Participants given a placebo still acted drunk. Perceived effects theory; beliefs about prevalence and risk. If you have a lot of negative effect then you have more desire for arousal.
Biological: Animal studies and twin studies have shown that there's a genetic predisposition. Genes- increased tolerance, more like to abuse alcohol.
Describe the treatment for alcohol abuse
Biological: Antabuse, naltraxone
CBT: Aversion therapy, controlled drinking
Self help, however, this has motivational issues.