Lecture 7 Heart and blood vessel- atheroma Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 7 Heart and blood vessel- atheroma Deck (28):
1

Define atheroma

Build up of fatty material on the inside wall of an artery

2

Define atherosclerosis

Progressive narrowing and hardening within the artery potentially resulting in complete blockage.

3

Atheroma contributes to how many deaths?

Almost half of all deaths in western countries

4

Where atheroma may occur

Lower abdo aorta, cotonary arteries, popliteal arteries, internal carotid and circle of willis

5

Why does athoma occur?

Chronic injury to the endothelium -> chronic inflammation

6

What can cause injury to the endothelium?

Hyperlididaemia, disturbed flow, smoking, hypertension,

7

Explain the development of a plaque fissure/thrombosis

Fatty streak -> plaque -> Obstructive atherosclerotic plaque -> Plaque fissure/thrombosis

8

Define aneurysm and where it can occur

weakening of the wall (balloon), aorta

9

Why may atherosclerotic plaques cause symptoms?

Aneurysm/rupture. Thrombosis, haematoma formation, embolism, critical stenosis

10

How does atheroma normally grown?

outward preserving lumen caliber.

11

How can atheroma lead to thrombosis?

When the atheromas plaque ruptures -> thrombosis

12

Define TIA

Transient Ischemic attack. Mini stroke.

13

Signs of peripheral vascular disease

Smoked most of life. Severe pain in both legs when walking >10 mins. Infected ulcers in feet. Due to muscles needing more oxygen because working.

14

Signs of myocardial infarct (heart attack)

Central crushing chest pain, ECG showed ST elevation affecting V1 to V4.

15

In case, what happened to gentleman with MI.

Gentleman was taken to cath lab for revascularisation procedure. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI))

16

Other presentations of MI?

Bowel ischaemia (black), renal artery stenosis, emboli (common to feet).

17

Define revascularization

Trying to get blood flowing through again

18

What is the largest single cause of death in UK

Ischaemic heart disease

19

By how much does one MI increase the risk of heart failure and stroke?

3-6 fold

20

Define thyrotoxicosis

Hyperthyroidism

21

Fixed risk factors of ischaemic heart disease

Family history, male, age, ACE gene deletion.

22

Potentially reversible risk factors of ischaemic heart disease

Hyperlipidaemia, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, heavy alcohol consumption.

23

>90% of ischaemia heart disease is caused by?

atherosclerotic obstruction of coronary arteries. (coronary heart disease)

24

Signs and symptoms of ischemic heart disease?

Central crushing chest pain, SOB, palpitations, syncope, Nausea, sweating, pale.

25

Define syncope

Temp loss of consciousness caused by ↓in BP

26

Clinical presentation of ischemic heart disease?

Stable angina, unstable angine (no warning, no pattern), NSTEMI (Non-st elevation myocardial infarction), STEMi, Sudden death.

27

Is stable angina reversible?

Yes

28

What investigations can be done for ischemic heart disease?

Exercise tolerance test, bloods, x-ray and ECG.