Lecture 8 - Diabetes (mostly FA tbh) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 8 - Diabetes (mostly FA tbh) Deck (24):
1

diagnosis of diabetes:
HbA1c > ____
fasting plasma glucose > ____
2 hour oral glucose tolerance test > _____

6.5%
126 mg/dL;
200 mg/dL

2

Type 1 vs Type 2:
characterized by islet leukocytic infiltrate/inflamm = _____
islet amyloid polypeptide deposits = _____
stronger genetic predisposition = _____
ketoacidosis common = ____
hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state common = _____

type 1;
type 2;
type 2;
type 1;
type 2

3

type 1 vs type 2:
associated with obesity leading to decreased insulin receptors = ____;
presence of glutamic acid decarboxylase Abs = _____;
HLA DR3, 4 associated = _____

type 2;
type 1;
type 1

4

diabetes:
osmotic damage is due to ___ accumulation in organs with _____ and/or absent _____

sorbitol;

aldolase reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase

5

progression of nephropathy in diabetes:
____ arterioles first --> glomerular ____filtration --> micro____ --> _____ syndrome

efferent;
hyper;
albuminuria;
nephrotic

6

three major effects leading to hyperglycemia in type II diabetes:

decreased _____, increased _____, increased _____

glucose uptake, glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis

all due to insulin resistance and/or decreased secretion

7

there is also ____ proteolysis and ____ lipolysis;

effect of the changes in lipolysis? = increased _____

increased, increased;

ketogenesis/ketoacidosis

8

diabetes:
impaired ____ secretion and unopposed/increased ____ secretion

insulin, glucagon

9

in the digestive tract, there is a ____ incretin effect in diabetes. in the kidneys, there is ____ glucose reabsorption. in the brain, there is ____ dysfunction

decreased, increased,
NT

10

after a meal, glucagon usually ____ and insulin usually ____ in normal people

decreases, increases

11

incretins:
_____ is released from the ____ cells in illeum and colon;
___ is released from ___ cells in the duodenum;

both stimulate insulin release in a glucose ____ manner; they ____ gastric emptying

GLP, L;
GIP, K;

dependent;
inhibit

12

glucose:
usually reabsorbed in the ____ via _____;
what is renal threshold of plasma glucose concentration that can be fully absorbed?

PCT, SGLT1 and 2 (Na/Glucose symporter);

200 mg/dL;

fully saturated = 375 mg/min fyi

13

the 3 poly's of diabetes = ____;


also weight ____

polyuria, dipsia, phagia;

weight loss

14

"LuRKS" pneumonic of things that (do or do not) have aldolase reductase
L =
R =
K =
S =

do have (ie only have aldolase reductase);

lens,
retina,
kidneys,
schwann cells

15

3 infections that are def associated with diabetes (1 bacteria, 2 fungi)

mucor (+rhizopus) , candida, pseudomonas

16

diabetes:
contractures in the ____ joints cause a positive prayer sign and table top sign

MCP

also PIP, DIP involved

17

3 "lipo" findings at insulin injection sites =

lipodystrophy, atrophy, hypertrophy

18

eye things (from pathoma):
retinal ____ take up sorbitol and die. this causes blood leakage and ____ --> retinal _____ --> blindness

pericytes;
aneurysm;
hemorrhage

19

nonproliferative vs proliferative retinopathy:
damaged capillaries leak blood--> hemorrhage = ____;
from chronic hypoxia = _____;
new blood vessel formation = _____;
macular edema = _____

non;
prolifer;
prolifer;
non prolifer

20

another name for nodular glomerulosclerosis = _____ _____;

first sign of this clinically is

kimmelsteil-wilson nodules;

proteinuria

21

what drug is reno-protective for diabetic nephropathy?

ACE inhibitors

22

why do ulcers and charcot joints occur in diabetics?

location most common?

peripheral neuropathy;

feet/ankles

23

hyperosmolar hyperketotic state:
more common in type 1 or type 2?
state of profound ______;
increased or normal ketones?;
usually seen in ____ people who are v _____;
acidosis?

type 2;
hyperglycemia;
normal;
old, dehydrated';
nope

24

metabolic syndrome WEIGHhT pneumonic:
WE =
IG =
H =
H =
T =

waist expanded (pear shaped);
Impaired glucose;
Hypertension;
HDL low;
TGs high