Flashcards in Lecture 7 - Reproductive Deck (31):
LH stimulates ______ (an enzyme), which stimulates production of _____ in what cells?.
FSH stimulates ____ ( an enzyme), which stimulates production of _____ in what cells?
desmolase, androstenedione, theca cells;
aromatase, estrone/estrogen, granulosa cells
LH stimulates ____ in ____ cells to secrete _____.
FSH acts on ____ cells. this causes an increase in release of ______
cholesterol desmolase, leydig, testosterone;
order of phases?
_____ then _____ then _____ then _____
follicular phase, ovulation, luteal, menses
the follicular phase is characterized by increasing levels of _____, produced by the _____. this causes the endometrium to _____.
estrogen, developing follicule; grow (proliferative phase)
an increase in _____ causes a ____ surge,
the _____ produces ____ and ____ . this causes the endometrium to ______
corpus luteum, estrogen, progesteron;
increase vascularity and secretions (secretory phase)
when the ____ involutes, ____ and ____ levels fall. this causes _____
the most common congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a deficiency in _____.
findings = _____ androgens, _____ cortisol, ______ mineralocorticoids
increased, decreased, decreased
see virilization in females, precocious puberty in males
other congenital adrenal hyperplasias:
in ____ deficiency, there is an increase in mineralocorticoids and a _____ in sex hormones. causes ____ in males
17 alpha hydroxylase;
decrease, ambiguous genitalia
hypertension as well
11-beta hydroxylase deficiency:
blood pressure is _____ due to ____ deoxycortisone
androgens are _____.
increased --> virilization
sexual differentiation males:
the ____ gene on the Y chromosome produces _____ that leads to testes development. the sertoli cells secrete _____ that suppresses development of the ____ ducts. the leydig cells secrete ____ that stimulate development of the ____ ducts
SRY, testes-determining factor;
Mullerian-inhibiting factor (MIF), paramesonephric;
testosterone, mesonephric (wolffian)
the mesonephric duct gives rise to the internal structures aka SEED, which stands for ___, ____, ____, ____.
____ is responsible for the development of the external genitalia plus the ____
Seminal vesicles, epididymis, ejaculatory duct, ductus deferens;
the paramesonephric duct is responsible for the ____ genitalia.
the ovaries produce ____ which is responsible for the ____ genitalia
internal (and proximal vagina);
estradiol, external (and distal vagina)
pubic hair (pubarche) appears in stage ____ in both sexes.
_____ enlargement begins in stage II in males;
the "mound" forms in stage ____ in females
3 (stage 2 = breast bud forms)
penis ___ and ____ increases in stage 3.
penis ____ and ____ increases in stage 4.
the breast enlarges, the ____ is raised in stage IV
pubarche = appearance of ___
thelarche = development of _____
adenarche = development of _____
the ____ body shape is characterized by a longer lower body segment and and longer arm span than height. this is due to _____
levels of testosterone in men are highest when?
in the morning (ie 8 am)
ovaries are ____
external genitalia are _____;
due to _____ exposure during gestation
testes are _____;
external genitalia are _____;
usually due to _______
androgen insensitivty syndrome (ie defect in androgen receptor)
classic chromosomal genotype = ____
due to maternal ______;
clinically evident when?
___, firm testes, ____ extremities, ____, female hair distribution;
presence of _____ in cells
increased risk of ____ disease, cancers (ie germ cell tumors in mediastinum)
barr body (inactivated X chrom);
chromosomal genotype =
___ stature, ovarian ____ causing ____ ovary;
____ neck or cystic ____
short, dysgenesis, streak;
2 heart defects associated with it =
widely spaced ____, _____ kidney
coarctation of aorta, bicuspid aortic valve;
androgen insensitivity syndrome:
external genitalia are ____
internal genitalia =
___ levels of testosterone and LH
male (ie testes);
hypergonadotropic hypogonadism is due a problem with ____; called ____ hypogonadism
hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is due to a problem with ____; called ____ hypogonadism
the gonads, primary
the hypothalmus or pituitary, secondary
testosterone is ____;
LH is ____;
testosterone is _____,
LH is ____
defective migration of _____-releasing ____ and failure of ______ to develop = decreased ____ synthesis