Lecture 7 - Reproductive Flashcards Preview

ICM - Endocrine > Lecture 7 - Reproductive > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 7 - Reproductive Deck (31):
1

estrogen:
LH stimulates ______ (an enzyme), which stimulates production of _____ in what cells?.

FSH stimulates ____ ( an enzyme), which stimulates production of _____ in what cells?

desmolase, androstenedione, theca cells;

aromatase, estrone/estrogen, granulosa cells

2

males:
LH stimulates ____ in ____ cells to secrete _____.

FSH acts on ____ cells. this causes an increase in release of ______

cholesterol desmolase, leydig, testosterone;

sertoli, inhibin

3

menstrual cycle:
order of phases?
_____ then _____ then _____ then _____

follicular phase, ovulation, luteal, menses

4

menstrual cycle:
the follicular phase is characterized by increasing levels of _____, produced by the _____. this causes the endometrium to _____.

estrogen, developing follicule; grow (proliferative phase)

5

ovulation:
an increase in _____ causes a ____ surge,

estrogen, LH

6

luteal phase:
the _____ produces ____ and ____ . this causes the endometrium to ______

corpus luteum, estrogen, progesteron;
increase vascularity and secretions (secretory phase)

7

when the ____ involutes, ____ and ____ levels fall. this causes _____

corpus luteum;
progesterone, estrogen;
menses

8

the most common congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a deficiency in _____.

findings = _____ androgens, _____ cortisol, ______ mineralocorticoids

salt ____

21-hydroxylase;

increased, decreased, decreased

wasting

see virilization in females, precocious puberty in males

9

other congenital adrenal hyperplasias:

in ____ deficiency, there is an increase in mineralocorticoids and a _____ in sex hormones. causes ____ in males

17 alpha hydroxylase;
decrease, ambiguous genitalia

hypertension as well

10

11-beta hydroxylase deficiency:
blood pressure is _____ due to ____ deoxycortisone
androgens are _____.

increased, increased;
increased --> virilization

11

sexual differentiation males:
the ____ gene on the Y chromosome produces _____ that leads to testes development. the sertoli cells secrete _____ that suppresses development of the ____ ducts. the leydig cells secrete ____ that stimulate development of the ____ ducts

SRY, testes-determining factor;
Mullerian-inhibiting factor (MIF), paramesonephric;
testosterone, mesonephric (wolffian)

12

male development:
the mesonephric duct gives rise to the internal structures aka SEED, which stands for ___, ____, ____, ____.

____ is responsible for the development of the external genitalia plus the ____

Seminal vesicles, epididymis, ejaculatory duct, ductus deferens;

DHT, prostate

13

females:
the paramesonephric duct is responsible for the ____ genitalia.

the ovaries produce ____ which is responsible for the ____ genitalia

internal (and proximal vagina);

estradiol, external (and distal vagina)

14

Tanner stages:
pubic hair (pubarche) appears in stage ____ in both sexes.
_____ enlargement begins in stage II in males;
the "mound" forms in stage ____ in females

II;
testicular

3 (stage 2 = breast bud forms)

15

Tanner stages:
penis ___ and ____ increases in stage 3.

size, length

16

tanner stages:
penis ____ and ____ increases in stage 4.
the breast enlarges, the ____ is raised in stage IV

width, glans;

areola

17

pubarche = appearance of ___
thelarche = development of _____
adenarche = development of _____

pubic hair;
breasts;
axillary hair

18

the ____ body shape is characterized by a longer lower body segment and and longer arm span than height. this is due to _____

eunuchoid;
hypogonadism (prepubertal)

19

levels of testosterone in men are highest when?

in the morning (ie 8 am)

20

46 XX:
ovaries are ____
external genitalia are _____;
due to _____ exposure during gestation

present, virilized/ambiguous;

testosterone

21

46 XY:
testes are _____;
external genitalia are _____;
usually due to _______

present,
female/ambiguous;
androgen insensitivty syndrome (ie defect in androgen receptor)

22

klinefelter:
classic chromosomal genotype = ____
due to maternal ______;
clinically evident when?

47 XXY;
meiotic nondisjunction;
after puberty

23

klinefelter:
___, firm testes, ____ extremities, ____, female hair distribution;
presence of _____ in cells
increased risk of ____ disease, cancers (ie germ cell tumors in mediastinum)

small, long;
gynecomastia;
barr body (inactivated X chrom);
pulmonary

24

turner syndrome:
chromosomal genotype =
___ stature, ovarian ____ causing ____ ovary;
____ neck or cystic ____

45, XO;
short, dysgenesis, streak;
webbed, hygroma

25

turner syndrome:
2 heart defects associated with it =

widely spaced ____, _____ kidney

coarctation of aorta, bicuspid aortic valve;
nipples, horseshoe

26

androgen insensitivity syndrome:
genotype =
external genitalia are ____
internal genitalia =
___ levels of testosterone and LH

46 XY;
female
male (ie testes);
high

27

hypergonadotropic hypogonadism is due a problem with ____; called ____ hypogonadism

hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is due to a problem with ____; called ____ hypogonadism

the gonads, primary

the hypothalmus or pituitary, secondary

28

primary hypogonadism:
testosterone is ____;
LH is ____;

decreased, increased

29

secondary hypogonadism:
testosterone is _____,
LH is ____

decreased, decreased

30

kallman's syndrome:
defective migration of _____-releasing ____ and failure of ______ to develop = decreased ____ synthesis

GnRH, neurons;
olfactory bulbs;
GnRH

31

kallman's:
= form of _____ hypogonadism;
patients have ___osomia, micropenis, ____ levels of GnRH, FSH, and LH; ___ levels of testosterone

hypogonadotropic;
anosomia, low, low