Flashcards in Lecture 5 - Parathyroid/calcium disorders Deck (32):
PTH is released in response to low serum ____ or high serum ____
increases reabs of calcium in the _____;
increases secretion of phosphate in the _____;
increases production of Vit D by stimulating ____ in the _____;
increases bone resorption of ....
1 alpha hydroxylase, PCT;
Ca and PO4
calcitriol causes increased release of ____ which decreases bone formation.
calcitriol also increases calcium and phosphate reabsorption from the ____ and _____
increase in concentration causes a _____ in refractoriness of stimulation of neurons and muscle cells
causing coma, muscular weakness
decrease in calcium leads to _____ in neuromuscular excitability-->translates into _____ and ____
what is the name of the calcium salt that is the major structural cation?
alkalosis causes a _____ in binding affinity to albumin, ____ calcium levels and causing _____
calcium levels also decrease with decreased levels of serum ____ or increased levels of ____
chvostek sign =
trousseau sign =
in the heart: ______
tap facial nerve-->contract muscle;
occlude brachial artery-->carpal spasm;
prolonged QT (risk of torsades)
hypoparathyroidism: during ____ surgery, autoimmune destruction, ____ syndrome
C = cleft palate
A = abnormal facies
T = thymic aplasia --> T cell deficiency
C = cardiac defects
H = hypo calcemia
according to FA, normal serum calcium is between ____ and ____
_____, ____, _____, _____, and ____ overtones
bones (bone pain)
groans (abdominal pain, constipation)
thrones (increased urinary frequency)
psychiatric (anxiety, impaired concentration)
usually due to ___ or ____;
in addition to the hypercalcemia symptoms mentioned, can have acute ____, ______ ulcers, nephrocalcinosis
familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia:
due to defective ______ in multiple tissues. ____ than normal Calcium is required to suppress PTH =
mild ____ and hypo _____ with ____ PTH levels
Ca sensing receptors;
normal to increased
_____ diuretics decrease reabsorption --> hypocalcemia;
_____ diuretics increase reabsorption
hypercalcemia of malignancy can be due to ____ or _____
after confirming clinical hypercalcemia, what should you check next?
( if increased, primary HPTH or familial)
with chronic renal failure:
___calcemia, ____phosphatemia, failure of _____ --> __ PTH levels
vitamin D hydroxylation;
criteria for surgery of primary hyperPTH:
clinical manifestations of __.
age ___ than 50 years;
creastinine clearance less than ____
current or past kidney ___
Vitamin D deficiency causes a ____ in urinary phosphate excretion
symptoms of hypophosphatemia:
bone ____, ____ levels fall causing an increase in Hb affinity = tissue ____;
renal ____, metastatic _____, ___calcemia
asociated with tumor lysis, rhabdomyolysis
stones, calcification, hypo
decreased VIT D --> ____ serum Ca --> ___ PTH --> ____ serum PO4
decreased, increased, decreased;
genu ____ (bow legs),
bead-like _______ (rachitic rosary),
_____ (Soft skull),
_____ are characteristic radiological findings in osteomalacia. they are ____ of femoral neck/nearby areas
chronic kidney disease:
see ____ Ca absorption and/or ____ phosphate absorption . renal failure causes decreased ____ levels --> excessive levels of _____
PTH (secondary HPTH)
______ is due to high bone turnover caused by hypert PTH. causes ____ bone spaces
osteitis fibrosa cystica;
what is tertiary hyper PTH?
autonomous/refractory hyper PTH resulting from CKD.
3 stages of paget disease:
osteoclastic overactivation (lytic)
mixed osteoblasts and osteoclasts
osteoblast overactivation (sclerotic)
localized or widespread bone disorder?
associated with increased _____ size.
____ loss from foramen narrowing.