Flashcards in Lecture for Chapter 5 Deck (71):
The use of memory requires three components:
What is the route into memory:
-What we learn depends on what we already know
-What we know depends on what we've attended
-What we attend is guided by expectation
-What we expect depends on what we've already learned
What is the modal model of Information acquisition?
A series of stages through which information is detected recognized, stored and retrieved. In this model WM is seen as a stage but in reality it may be a state.
Characteristics of WM:
Small limited capacity, at hand, in use, active, current, fast
Characteristics of LTM:
Vast, reference library, files, dormant, slow
What is the evidence for distinction between these two memory systems?
Primacy and recency effects
Given a list of words one at a time, one second apart and told to free recall as many words as possible (in any order), which are remembered best?
Words that are early in the list -Primacy effect
Words that are later in the list - Recency effect
What causes the Primacy effect?
More likely to go into LTM. More memory rehearsal and more attention. First word gets 100% attention, the second gets 50% of attention etc.
What causes the Recency effect?
Still in working memory so easily accessible. Once you get too many items in WM you have to dump some out.
What type of task will decrease the recency effect?
If recall of words is delayed by an intervening backwards counting or other distracting task(interpolated activity). This decreases the recency effect by bumping items out of WM.
How will slowing the rate of presentation of the words affect the serial position curve? Why?
Increases recall for all of the curve except for the recency effect. The slower rate of presentation allows more rehearsal time and increases likelihood of the word entering LTM.
What is the function of WM?
-Allows for speed and accuracy of access to information.
-Keeping the currently needed information active and accessible
What is the capacity of Working Memory?
7 plus or minus 2
Why is the capacity of working memory so much smaller than that of LTM?
Trade off between accessibility and size.
How can the "capacity" of WM be increased?
Chunking allows more information to be stored in working memory. There is however a trade off. The larger the chunks the fewer there cam be.
7 words can be stored in WM but only ____ full sentences.
3 or 4
True or False: Chunking strategies for one type of material can be transferred to other material.
False - they are material specific
this is seen in Subject "S" 79 digit span did not transfer
Does chunking require attention?
Chunking requires practice and uses up WM capacity
What is the nature of WM?
WM is an active store. "State rather than place". Cannot point to the location of working memory in the brain, consists of whatever is currently active.
Maintenance of info in WM is not passive but __________
Active and demanding
If memory is a state than rather than the span test we need a measure of capacity that considers ____________
What type of test will test capacity as well as efficency?
7x7 +1=50 bean
Determine whether the math question is true or false and at the same time memorize the word.
What info does WM hold?
The things we are currently thinking about.
WM is coordinated by the __________
What is the central executive?
A processor capable of running many operations on many different types of material. Response selection, goal setting, planning, tied to attention
What mechanisms are used to keep information in the WM?
-Articulatory Rehearsal Buffer
-Visual spatial sketchpad
-Manual rehearsal loop for sign language
How does the articulatory rehearsal loop work?
-draws on the same mechanisms that are used for speech
The inner voice: produces traces of pronounciation
The inner ear: auditory image fades away and process repeats
- Use of speech like code
The articulatory rehearsal loop explains_______ errors and accounts for _________ chunking effect in WM.
phonological, sound-alike errors
Word-length effect (ease of pronounciation matters)
What happens to WM when the rehearsal loop is blocked with extraneous auditory noise or concurrent articulation?
-Word length effect and sound-alike errors are reduced
-WM capacity is reduced
-capacity is the capacity of the system minus the rehearsal loop
Wht does the Rey-Osterrieth Complex figure test show us?
WM is distinct in that it is :
-Diverse in the range of its contents
-Diverse in the source of its contents
The type of memory that is vast in size, difficult to enter and retrieve info from is _________
What two types of rehearsal are used for the acquisition of LTM?
Maintenance Rehearsal and Elaborative Rehearsal
Define Maintenance Rehearsal
Requires little effort, rote mechanical
Define Elaborative Rehearsal
Difficult requires effort
Which type of Rehearsal leads to more effective retrieval later on?
What type of rehearsal would participants be likely to use in Craik and Watkins "report the last D word" experiment?
Probably maintenance because you don't need a more strenuous strategy
What did Craik and Watkins "report the last D word" experiment show?
Since different D words were important for shorter or longer amount of time but all were remember equally, this shows that regardless of the number of times the item was rehearsed maintenance rehearsal doesn't lead to better recall.
True or False: Repeated exposure to a stimulus leads to memory.
False - Repeated exposure does not necessarily mean you encode the info. ex. What is on the penny?
Does intention to learn lead to a better memory?
Indirect effect if the subject applies the right learning strategy
To have a better memory __________ is critical
type of processing
Identifying_______ leads to shallow processing, _______ lead to medium processing and _______lead to deep processing
What is incidental learning?
Learning without intent
What was found in the word pair experiment varying levels of processing and intentional vs incidental learning?
Intention had no effect, deep processing led to good recall, medium processing to medium recall and shallow processing led to poor recall
why does deep processing help learning?
-It facilitates retrieval.
-Memories are connected so one can trigger another.
-Understanding the meaning helps establish connections. -A richer connection network results in better retrieval.
Discovering or imposing _________ on material can help improve memory.
Mnemonic Strategies are
Discovering or imposing organization on material in order to improve memory.
What type of organization can be found within material?
categories, similarities, differences, temporal relations
What type of organization can be applied to memories?
Peg word system
Method of Loci
Describe the peg word system:
Person learns a list of words that act as "pegs" to hang other words on. Imagine an image of the peg word interacting with the word to be remembered. Crazier the better.
Describe the method of Loci
-A series of distinct loci (locations) to be remembered.
-Imagine precisely and dynamically placing image of to be remembered word in location
- Walk through the building and retrieve words in order
How did Crovitz test the number of objects that can be stored in one location using the method of loci?
Crovitz's taught 7 groups of subject to use the method of loci. Subjects were given 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32 locations and 32 words to be remembered. Subjects with less locations had to place more words in the same location.
What were the results of Crovitz's number of words at a locations experiment?
Storing 2 things at each location worked well but after that the number correct decreased.
Describe list learning:
It is easier to recall words that fall into categories, In free recall studies subjects often sort words into categories at recall.
In a list with no obvious categories more _____recall order at tests 1 and 2 will predict _____recall on test 3. (Tulving study)
What are two types of interference that can make learning hard?
Proactive interference is:
When previous learning hurts new learning
Retroactive interference is :
When new learning interferes with previously learned stuff.
Tulip, orchard, daffodil
rose, pansy, carnation
Petunia, zinnia, lily
--- Is an example of _________
-remembering the first three flowers makes it difficult to remember the following sets
Sal studied list A then list B. Tim studied List A and rested
If tested on list A who would do better? Why?
Tim, because he did not have retroactive interference. Sal's learning of list B interfered with her learning of list A.
What are memory techniques to remember names?
- pay attention and look for links
- use the name
- space practice
Mnemonics are great for remembering lists but not so great for ________
What study techniques would best prepare you for this test
-Encode, organize and elaborate the meaning of material
-Be an active processor
-Space your practice
- Sleep on what you have learned
What experiment showed that understanding leads to better memory?
The balloon passage experiment. Participants listened to the passage while trying to comprehend and remember. Participants rated how easy it was to comprehend and recalled as many ideas as possible.
what were the results of the balloon passage experiment?
-No context and context after recalled 3.6 ideas
-Context before recalled 8 ideas
Context is important at the _________ stage, it allows for understanding and leads to a richer set of connections.
How do we know that context does more than provide hints about the ideas in the passage?
If that is all it did the context after group would have benefited from knowing the context of the balloon passage
Context provides a __________for ideas at the encoding stage.
- reduces abstracts, connections are more apparent
In memory acquisition __________ has an indirect effect while _________ has a direct effect.
intention to learn
level of processing
The ability to chunk depends on _______