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1

Define Psychology

The Scientific investigation of mental processes and behaviour

2

How do we study the mind?

- we need generally agreed on methods to be developed and taught
- We developed the Scientific Method

3

What is the mind?

- An abstract concept and construct but we know the conscious exists
- not discernible using the senses
-

4

Cognitive & Information Processes Revolution

- gave us more tangible constructs to work with to define the mind
- Store, retrieve, compute, memory these concepts help us define the mind.
- Second part of psychology becomes the mind

5

Second part of psychology becomes the mind

- Investigate Mental Processes
- How does the mind produce behaviour

6

In order to study the mind we need . . .

- to agree on a process of study
-

7

How do we think we know something about reality?

- Existential concepts
- It is very hard to decide how we really know things
- Is there such a thing as Free Will

8

Tenacity

Acquiring Knowledge through Superstition or Habit

9

Intuition

Acquiting knowledge not based on reasoning or inference or common sense

10

Authority

Accepting knowledge from a highly respected source

11

Rationalism

Acquiring knowledge through reasoning

12

Epiricism

Acquiring knowledge through experience

13

Two ways to back up your thoughts in your writing in a paper

1. Cite empirical evidence and reference
2. Rationalise through reason and logic; if, then, else.

14

Why do we need the scientific method?

- Human judgement is not trustworthy

15

Heuristics

A heuristic is a mental shortcut that allows people to solve problems and make judgments quickly and efficiently
- Allows us to make connections quickly
eg: Blue Taxi vs Green Taxi example.

16

Reliance on Intuition

- Removes objectivity we "feel" like we have free will.
- We learn that it is useful to rely on our instincts so we do have free will.

17

Heuristics/Biases

- Mental short cuts and preconceived ideas prevent us from being objective

18

Perception vs Reality

- perception is subject to the individual mind and its method of processing input
- Is perception actually reality
- We don't actually SEE reality; we IMPOSE what we see as tools on the world.
eg: we perceive a chair, we impose our knowledge of its use on it and conclude therefore the chair is real.
- We see its use

19

Human Observation

- Isn't reliable as it is subjective to perception

20

Reliance on Authority

- Higher authorities are human and therefore also fallible
- Asch Experiment shows we can be coerced into changing our own perceptions
- Milgram Experiment shows how reliance on authority is ingrained in us but can produce incongruent behaviour

21

How do psychologists know things?

Apply the scientific method

22

What are some non science ways of knowing?

- Tenacity
- Intuition
- Authority
- Rationalism
- Empiricism

23

Why don't we trust human judgement

- Unreliable, malleable, perception vs reality, biases etc

24

How do we hope to gain knowledge?

- science requires that knowledge is based on evidence
- Assigning likelihood of one result to occur for one alternative over another

25

What do we accept as evidence?

- Evidence must be reproducible
- Other people must be able to verify it.
- Objective evidence requires objective process

26

What is the goal of Science (4)

- Describe
- Predict
- Determine Cause
- Explain

27

Goal of Science - Describe

- give an accurate description of knowledge that can be observed by others
eg: In the dark I cannot see

28

Goal of Science - Predict

- Gives rise to posit that something will happen as a result of something else.
- something is true because it works through prediction.
eg: In the dark I cannot see. If I turn on a light it will illuminate the room and I will see

29

Goal of Science - Determine Cause

- We investigate what could create the situation being observed.
- When tested over and over again then we could reliably establish a cause
eg: I turned on the light repeatedly and the light globe illuminated the room each time

30

Goal of Science - Explain

- Provide an adequate reason as to why something works and is therefore real.
eg: The house has been wired with electricity and therefore every time I turn on the light it will illuminate the room.