Flashcards in T3 Lecture W1 Deck (20)
The Scientific Process
- We need an agreed upon method to study the mind.
- We create the Scientific Method to study the mind and behaviour objectively.
How can we hope to build our knowledge? (3)
- Knowledge needs to be evidence based
- Evidence must be reproducible
- Evidence needs to be objective (scientific method)
What are the goals of Science (4)
- Determine Cause
Science is Based on Evidence
- We collect Data
- We analyse data
- This produces evidence for us
There are different types of Science
- Medical - is a certain pill useful or not?
What determines good Scientific Research (8)
- Based on the work of others
- Can be replicated
- Is generalisable to other settings
- Is based on logical rationale and tie to theory
- Is doable
- Generates new questions
- Is incremental
- Is an apolitical activity
Good Scientific Methodology can be replicated
- can be mirrored by others
- also replicates the work of others
Good Scientific Methodology is generalisable
- allows room for the assumption that if a finding is so in a small population then this finding can be assumed to reflect the greater population
Good Scientific Methodology is logical and tied to theory
- We need to understand why something works so that we can apply these theories in other contexts
How to recognise good research
- The scientific process is used to seek the truth
- if the process is sound, then the conclusion is sound
Can we ever know the real truth?
- Karl Popper said we can never really 'Know' that something is true
- We can attempt to falsify a theory until it is no longer able to be falsified
- It is then considered accepted but not true.
- A hypothesis is tested not proven
- Being wrong is not bad; it just leads to more questions
what are important factor in the Scientific Process
- What are we looking for
- What factors should we consider?
- Not have been investigated previously
- contribute to understanding
- available to investigate
- be interesting personally or professionally
- Lead to other questions
What is a Hypothesis
- an educated guess that is declarative
- "if, then else"
- reflects Theory and literature
- brief to the point
- Allow us to assign a probability level to a finding
- empowers us to make inference on whether an effect is real, due to chance or influenced by something else.
- Helps to assess differences
Testing a Hypothesis
- ensure that the data we are measuring is accurately reflecting what we are trying to deduce
- Assess whether the data is random or as a result of our mediation
Steps in the Scientific Process (8)
- Asking a question
- Identifying Important Factors
- Formulating a Hypothesis
- Collect relevant information
- Testing the hypothesis
- Working with the hypothesis
- Reconsider the theory
- Asking a new question
- says there is no statistical significance between the two variables
- often a hypothesis that researcher or experimenter will try to disprove or discredit
- Finding nothing or null results is important, but does not get published.
Important points about the Scientific Process (6)
- Theories are tentative and they evolve over time.
- Observations must be replicable
- Science acknowledges it is fallible
- Nothing is ever proved absolutely
- Scientists remain sceptical and alert to alternative explanations
- Science is a based on a genuine desire to understand the way things are
- Answers fundamental questions about behaviour
- often address theoretical issues about cognition, mental processes and behaviour
- Doesn't try to solve problems and has no specific application
- Has high degree of control
- emphasises refuting or supporting theories that explain how the world works.