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Flashcards in T3 Slide W8 Deck (31)
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1

Define Non Experimental Research

Ways of answering research questions without direct manipulation of variables

2

Descriptive Research

- asks about the characterisits of a unit or event
- describes the current state of affairs at the time of the study
- do not include treatment or control group
- do not make causal comparisons
- provides a picture of what is occurring not why it occurs
- there are many descriptive methods but psychology mostly use survey and correlational methods.

3

Survey Research

- Examines the frequency and relationships between psychological and sociological variables
- Assumes attitudes, beliefs, prejudices

4

Interview Research

- Basic tool of survey
- an "oral questionnaire"
- two types of questions
-- Structured questions require an explicit answer
-- Open-ended questions allow the interviewee to elaborate

5

Interview Research

- Interview Protocols vary in their degree of structure
-- Unstructured Interviews
-- Semi-structured Interviews
-- Structured interviews

6

Interview Research - Unstructured Interviews

Are characterised by a lack of predetermined schedule; they are exploratory.
N.B., although flexible, this comes at the cost of reliability and difficulties in bias and analyses.

7

Interview Research - Semi-Structured Interviews

- uses a standardised interview
- uses a standardised interview schedule.
- contains pre-set questions
- however, it is not reliant on the rigorous application of the schedule (often uses probes).

8

Interview Research - Structured Interviews

- Rely on a fixed and ordered set of questions
- no room for probing

9

Critical Decision Method Probes (Klein et al., 1989) - (11)

• Cues
• Knowledge
• Analogues
• Goals
• Options
• Basis
• Experience
• Aiding
• Time Pressure
• Situation Assessment
• Hypotheticals

10

Critical Decision Method Probes (Klein et al., 1989) -
Cues

What were you seeing, hearing, smelling?

11

Critical Decision Method Probes (Klein et al., 1989) -
Knowledge

What information did you use in making this decision and how was it obtained?

12

Critical Decision Method Probes (Klein et al., 1989) -
Analogues

Were you reminded of any previous experience?

13

Critical Decision Method Probes (Klein et al., 1989) -
Goals

What were your specific goals at this time?

14

Critical Decision Method Probes (Klein et al., 1989) -
Options

What other courses of action were considered by or available to you

15

Critical Decision Method Probes (Klein et al., 1989) -
Basis

How was this option selected/other options rejected?
What rules were being followed?

16

Critical Decision Method Probes (Klein et al., 1989) -
Experience

What specific training or experience was necessary or helpful in making this decision?

17

Critical Decision Method Probes (Klein et al., 1989) -
Aiding

If the decision was not the best, what training, knowledge or information could have helped

18

Critical Decision Method Probes (Klein et al., 1989) -
Time Pressure

How much time-pressure was involved in making this decision?

19

Critical Decision Method Probes (Klein et al., 1989) -
Situation Assessment

Imagine that you were asked to describe the situation to someone else, how would you summarise the situation?

20

Critical Decision Method Probes (Klein et al., 1989) -
Hypotheticals

If a key feature of the situation had been different, what difference would it have made to your decision?

21

Interview Research - Advantages

- Flexibility in collecting data
- Interviewer can set tone and agenda

22

Interview Research - Disadvantages

- Expensive
- Lacks in anonymity
- Responses may not be honest
- Lack standardised questions

23

Ten Commandments of Interviewing (Salkind, 2011)

1. Do not begin the interview cold
2. Remember that you are there to get information
3. Be Direct
4. Dress appropriately
5. Find a quiet place to conduct the interview
6. If your interviewee doesn't give a satisfactory answer the first time don't give up
7. Use a tape recorder
8. Make the interviewee a part of the interview
9. Practice
10. Thank interviewees for their help and ask for questions.

24

How to do Survey Research

1. Clarify the objectives
2. Identify a sample
3. Define a method
- How will the questions be structured?
- How will the sample be defined?
- How will the data be collected?
- What types of questions will be asked?
4. Coding and scoring

25

Survey Research - Advantages

- Permits good generalisation
- Efficient data collection
- Can yield very accurate results

26

Survey Research - Disadvantages

- Bias
-- Interviewer Bias
-- Interviewee Bias
- Non Response

27

Correlation

- Examines the relationship between two variables
- Correlational relationships can be displayed using a scatterplot
- correlation does not imply causality, just because two things correlate does not imply causality

28

Scatterplot

- Plots scores on one variable plotted agains scores on a second variable
- Work best with Interval or Ratio measures
- can reveal different types of relationships

29

Correlation: Scatterplots

- Show how well two measures agree with each other
- Can show positive relationships, negative relationships or zero relationships
- Different relationships can vary anywhere from perfect positive to perfect negative

30

Correlation Coefficient

- is used to measure the degree of correlation between variables
- Pearson's product-moment correlation (r) most common
- Used when variables are at least the interval level of a measurement