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Flashcards in T3 Slide W2 Deck (61)
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1

What is the basic start for research

  • Noting an interesting question
  • Stating the question in such a way that it can be answered
  • Undergoing the scientific method

2

Experimental Group

The group in an experiment that is exposed to the Independent Variable

3

Control Group

The group in an experiment that is not exposed to an Independent Variable but is neutral

4

Non Experimental Research

  • Describe relationships between variables
  • Cannot test cause-and-effect relationships
    • Descriptive
    • Historical
    • Correlational
      • Qualitative

5

Descriptive Research

  • Describes characteristics of existing phenomena
  • Provides a broad picture
  • Serves as a basis for other types of research

6

Historical Research

  • Describes past events in the context of other past or current events
  • Primary and secondary sources of data

7

Correlational Research

  • Asks what several events have in common
  • Asks whether knowing one event can allow prediction of another event
  • Does not imply causation

8

Qualitative Research

  • Examines behaviour in natural social, cultural, and political contexts
  • Usually results in non-quantitative data

9

Qualitative Research

  • Examines behaviour in natural social, cultural, and political contexts
  • Usually results in non-quantitative data

10

Types of Experimental Research

  • True Experiment
  • Quasi-Experiment

11

True Experiment

  • Participants assigned to groups
  • Treatment variable is controlled by researcher
  • Control of potential causes of behaviour

12

Quasi-Experiment

  • Participants are preassigned to groups
  • Useful when researcher cannot manipulate variables

13

Types of Research Design Table

See booklet

14

Variables

  • Variables lie at the heart of psychological research
  • Psychological research is all about exploring the nature of the relationship among variables

15

What is a Variable?

  • an entity that can be measured
  • can take on different measured variables eg: height, weight, income
  • the more precise the measurement the more useful the measurement is.

16

What is the difference between a variable and a value

  • A value is a subset of a Variable
  • Variables can have different values

17

Independent Variables

A variable that forms groups or conditions in the study

18

What is an Independent Variable?

  • A variable that forms groups or conditions in the study
  • It is the condition that is compared in a study

19

Independent Variables

  • can be directly or indirectly manipulated by researcher
  • controlled by the researcher

20

Independent Variable - Direct Manipulation

When a researcher directly controls the IV

eg: administer a drug

21

Independent Variable - Indirect Manipulation

  • where groups are naturally occuring such as in a gender difference study
  • IV does not require manipulation to measure differences

22

When Independent Variables need to be divided into levels.

  • Levels are the different groups of an IV in a study
    • IV:gender - Lev els:
      • male
      • female
      • intersex

23

What makes a good Independent Variable?

  • The Independent Variable is not confounded
  • Levels do not vary systematically with other variables
  • Dependent variable is sensitive to changes in the independent Variable

24

What makes a good Independent Variable?

  • The Independent Variable is not confounded
  • Levels do not vary systematically with other variables
  • Dependent variable is sensitive to changes in the independent Variable

25

Dependent Variables

  • The outcome, performance or condition being assessed
  • Called dependent because its scores depend on the treatment condition or experimenter manipulation
  • Needs to be operationlised

26

Control Variable

Variable whose influence you want to control

27

Extraneous Variables

Confounding occurs when an extraneous variable:

  • Varies systematically across the levels of the independent variable
  • Is correlated with the dependent variable

28

Confounding Variable

  • An Extraneous variable that makes it impossible to draw casual relationships from the data as changes in the DV could be caused by the IV or confounding variable

29

How to control for influence?

Can be done by design or analysis

30

Mediator Variables

Thought to describe the psychological process that occurs to create the relationship