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Flashcards in Lifestyle and Career Development Deck (107)
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Lifestyle and career development have been emphasized
a. only since the late 1950s
b. only since the late 1960s
c. only since nondirective counseling became popular
d. since the beginning of the counseling and guidance movement and are still major areas of concern



One trend is that women are moving into more careers that in the past were populated by males. Women workers are often impacted by the "glass ceiling phenomenon". Assuming that a counselor's bx is influenced by the phenomenon, which statement would he most likely make when conducting a career counseling session with a female client who wants to advance to a higher position?
a. "Your ability to advance in the corporate world is generally based on your mother's attitude toward work. Can you tell me a little about it?"
b. "Actually, women can advance quite rapidly in the corporate world. I support you 100%. I'd say you should be optimistic and go for the position."
c. "Let's be rational: A woman can only advance so far. You really have very little if any chance of becoming a corporate executive. I'm here to help you cope with this reality."
d. "In most cases a female will work in a position that is at the same level as her father. Did your dad ever work as a corporate executive?"



Most research in the area of career development and its relationship to students indicates that
a. a very high proportion of students in high school and at the junior high level wanted guidance in planning a career. Career interests are more stable after college
b. students did not want career guidance despite its importance
c. many students were too inflexible to benefit from career guidance
d. high school students wanted career guidance but junior high students did not.



A dual-career family is one in which both partners have jobs to which they are committed on a some-what continuous basis. Which statement is true of dual-career families?
a. surprisingly enough, dual-career families have lower incomes than families in which only one partner works
b. dual-career families have higher incomes than the so-called traditional family in which only one partner is working
c. dual-career families have incomes which are almost identical to families with one partner working
d. surprisingly enough no research has been conducted on dual-career families



In the dual-career family, partners seem to be more self-sufficient than in the traditional family. In a dual-career household, the woman
a. generally has children before entering the work force
b. rarely if ever has children
c. is not self-reliant
d. is typically secure in her career before she has children



Studies indicate that
a. students receive ample vocational guidance
b. most parents can provide appropriate vocational guidance
c. students want more vocational guidance than they receive
d. career days meet the vocational guidance needs of most students



Statistics reveal that
a. on average, a worker with a bachelor's degree earns over $10,000 a year more than a worker with a high school diploma
b. fewer workers possess a high school degree than ever before
c. blue-collar jobs are growing faster than white-collar jobs
d. older workers are slower than younger workers and have less skill



When professional career counselors use the term leisure they technically mean
a. the client is having fun at work or away from work
b. the client is relaxing at work or away from work
c. the client is working at less than 100% capacity at work or away from work
d. the time the client has away from work which is not being utilized for obligations



In terms of leisure time and dual-career families
a. dual-career families have more leisure time
b. dual-career families have the same amount of leisure time as families with one wage earner
c. dual-career families have less leisure time
d. dual-career families have more weekend leisure time



A client who says, "I feel I cannot really become an administrator in our agency because I am a woman," is showing an example of
a. gender bias
b. counselor bias
c. the trait-and-factor theory
d. developmental theory and career choice



Psychological testing one's personality could be matched to an occupation which stressed those particular personality traits is known as
a. trait and factor theory
b. developmental theory



One major category of career theory is known as the trait-factor approach. It has also been dubbed the actuarial or matching approach. This approach
a. attempts to match conscious and unconscious work motives
b. attempts to match the worker and the work environment (job factors). The approach thus makes the assumption that there is one best or single career for the person
c. attempts to match career bx with attitudes
d. attempts to match cognition with the workload



The trait and factor career counseling, actuarial, or matching approach (which matches clients with a job) is associated with
a. Parsons and Williamson
b. Roe and Brill
c. Holland and Super
d. Tiedeman and O'Hara

a. Parsons and Wiliamson

Chandler Parsons --> glue guy traits

the theory assumes that an individual's traits can be measured so accurately that the choice of an occupation is a one-time process


The trait-and-factor or actuarial approach asserts that
a. job selection is a long-term developmental process
b. testing is an important part of the counseling process
c. a counselor can match the correct person with the appropriate job
d. b and c

d. Parsons suggests three steps to trait-and-factor
1. Knowledge of self and aptitudes and interests
2. Knowledge of jobs, including advantages/disadvantages
3. Matching the individual with the work


In 1909 a landmark book entitled Choosing a Vocation was released. The book was written by Frank Parsons. Parsons has been called
a. the Father of lifestyle
b. the Father of modern counseling
c. the Father of vocational guidance
d. the fourth force in counseling



Which statement is not true of the trait-and-factor approach to career counseling?
a. the approach attempts to match the person's traits with the requirements of a job
b. the approach usually relies on psychometric information
c. the approach is developmental and thus focuses on career maturity
d. the approach is associated with the work of Parsons and Williamson



Edmund Griffith Williamson's work (or the so-called Minnesota Viewpoint) purports to be scientific and didactic, utilizing test data from instruments such as the
a. Rorschach and the TAT
b. Binet and the Wechsler
c. BDI and the MMPI
d. Minnesota Occupational Rating Scales

d. Minnesota = matching


The trait-and-factor approach fails to take _____ into account.
a. individual change throughout the life span
b. relevant psychometric data
c. personality
d. job requirements



Anne Roe suggested a personality approach to career choice
a. based on cognitive-behavioral therapy
b. based on a model of strict operant conditioning
c. based on the premise that a job satisfies an unconscious need
d. based on the work of Pavlov

c. Roe was one of the first to suggest a theory of career choice based heavily on personality theory - person-environment theory - psychoanalytic


Roe was the first career specialist to utilize a two-dimensional system of occupational classification utilizing
a. unconscious and preconscious
b. fields and levels
c. yin and yang
d. transactional analysis nomenclature

b. 8 occupational fields include: service, business contact, organizations, technology, outdoor, science, general culture, and arts/entertainment

6 levels of occupational skills: professional and managerial 1, professional and managerial 2, semiprofessional/small business, skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled


All of the following are examples of Anne Roe's "fields" except
a. service
b. science
c. arts and entertainment
d. unskilled



All of the following are examples of Anne Roe's "levels" except
a. outdoor
b. semiskilled
c. semiprofessional/small business
d. professional and managerial



Roe spoke of three basic parenting styles: overprotective, avoidant, or acceptant. The result is that the child
a. experiences neurosis or psychosis
b. will eventually have a lot of jobs or a lack of employment
c. will develop a personality which gravitates toward people or away from people
d. will suffer from depression in the work setting or will be highly motivated to succeed



Roe's theory relies on Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs in the sense that in terms of career choice
a. lower order needs take precedence over higher order needs
b. self-actualization needs take precedence over lower order needs
c. all needs are given equal consideration
d. the need for self-actualization would overpower a physical need



Some support for Roe's theory comes from
a. the BDI
b. the WAIS-R
c. the Rorschach and the TAT
d. the gestalt therapy movement

c. the Rorschach and the TAT
Roe begins with "r" and so does Rorschach


In terms of genetics, Roe's theory would assert that
a. genetics play a very minor role in career choice
b. genetics help to determine intelligence and education
c. genetics are important while upbringing is not
d. genetics are important while the unconscious is not

b. Roe suggests that career choice is influenced by genetics, parent-child interaction, unconscious motivators, current needs, interests, education, and intelligence


According to Anne Roe, who categorized occupations by fields and levels,
a. the decision to pursue a career is purely a conscious decision
b. using the Strong is the best method of explaining career choice
c. early childhood experiences are irrelevant in terms of career choice
d. the choice of a career helps to satisfy an individual's needs



A 37 year old Caucasian male states during a counseling session that he is working as a clerk at Main Street Plumbing. This verbalization depicts the client's
a. career
b. lifestyle
c. job or position
d. occupation



Roe recognized the role of the unconscious mind in terms of career choice. Another theorist who emphasized the unconscious processes in this area of study was
a. Krumboltz
b. Parsons
c. Super
D. Bordin

D. Bordin - unconscious conflicts in career choices


Edwin Bordin felt that difficulties related to job choice
a. are indicative of neurotic sxs
b. are indicative of inappropriate reinforcers in the environment
c. are related to a lack of present moment awareness
d. are the result of irrational cognitions

a. psychoanalytic