Flashcards in Research and Program Evaluation Deck (123)

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1

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_______ validity refers to whether the DVs were truly influenced by the experimental IVs or whether other factors had an impact.

a. internal

b. external

### internal

2

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________ validity refers to whether the experimental research results can be generalized to larger populations. (i.e. other people, settings or conditions)

a. internal

b. external

### external

3

## _______ refers to statistical procedures that use the important or underlying factors in an attempt to summarize a lot of variables.

### Factor analysis

4

## The _________ is a nonparametric statistical measure that tests whether a distribution differs significantly from an expected theoretical distribution.

### chi-square

5

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Experiments emphasize parsimony, which means

a. interpreting the results in the simplest way

b. interpreting the results in the most complex manner

c. interpreting the results using a correlation coefficient

d. interpreting the results using a clinical interview

### a. parsimonious means a tendency to be miserly and not overspend. simple and economical

6

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Occam's Razor suggests that experimenters

a. interpret the results in the simplest manner

b. interpret the results in the most complex manner

c. interpret the results using a correlation coefficient

d. interpret the results using a clinical interview

### a. Occam's Razor - parsimony, principle of economy

7

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A counselor educator is running an experiment to test a new form of counseling. Unbeknownst to the experimenter one of the clients in the study is secretly seeing a gestalt therapist. This experiment

a. is parsimonious

b. is an example of Occam's Razor

c. is confounded/flawed

d. is valid and will most likely help the field of counseling

### c. invalid

8

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Nondirective is to person-centered as

a. psychological testing is to counseling

b. confounding is to experimenting

c. appraisal is to research

d. parsimony is to Occam's Razor

### d.

9

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An experiment is said to be confounded when

a. undesirable variables are not kept out of the experiment

b. undesirable variables are kept out of the experiment

c. basic research is used in place of applied research

d. the sample is random

### a. contaminating variable

10

## In experimental terminology IV stands for ______ and DV stands for ________.

### independent variable; dependent variable

11

## groups were not randomly assigned

### Causal comparative design

12

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A professor of counselor education hypothesized that biofeedback training could reduce anxiety and improve the average score on written board exams. If this professor decides to conduct a formal experiment the IV will be the _____, and the DV will be the _____.

a. professor; anxiety level

b. anxiety level; board exam score

c. biofeedback; board exam score

d. board exam score; biofeedback

### c.

13

##
Experimenters should always abide by a code of ethics. The variable you manipulate/control in an experiment is the

a. DV

b. dependent variable

c. the variable you will measure to determine the outcome

d. IV or independent variable

### d.

14

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In order for the professor of counselor education to conduct an experiment regarding his hypothesis he will need a(n) _____ and a(n) _____.

a. biofeedback group; systematic desensitization group

b. control group; systematic desensitization group

c. control group; experimental group

d. at least 60 subjects in the control group; at least 60 subjects in the experimental group

### c

15

## An ______ variable is one the researcher cannot control yet exists such as height, weight, or gender.

### organismic

16

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Hypothesis testing is most closely related to the work of

a. Hoppock

b. Freud

c. Lloyd Morgan

d. R. A. Fisher

### d. R. A. Fisher pioneered hypothesis testing - hypothesis is a statement which can be tested regarding the r/s of the IV and the DV

17

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The null hypothesis suggest that that there will not be a significant difference between the experimental group which received the IV and the control group which did not. Thus if the experiment in question 708 was conducted, the null hypothesis would suggest that

a. all students receiving biofeedback training would score equally well on the board exam

b. systematic desensitization might work better than biofeedback

c. biofeedback will not improve the board exam scores

d. meta-analysis is required.

### c. null hypothesis asserts that the samples will not change even after the experimental variable is applied

18

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The hunch is known as the experimental or alternative hypothesis. The experimental hypothesis suggests that a difference will be evident between the control group and the experimental group. Thus if the experiment in question 708 were conducted, the experimental hypothesis would suggest that

a. the biofeedback would raise board scores

b. the control group will score better on the board exam

c. there will be no difference between the experimental and the control groups

d. the experiment has been confounded

### a. affirmative hypothesis

19

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From a purely statistical standpoint, in order to compare a control group to the experimental group the researcher will need

a. a correlation coefficient

b. only descriptive statistics

c. percentile rank

d. a test of significance

### d.

20

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When you see the letter P in relation to a test of significance it means

a. portion

b. population parameter

c. probability

d. the researcher is using an ethnographic qualitative approach

### c. probability or level of significance

21

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In the social sciences the accepted probability level is usually

a. .05 or less

b. 1.0 or higher

c. .0001 or less

d. 5.0

### a. .05 and .01 are two most popular levels of significance

22

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P = .05 really means that

a. five subjects were not included in the study

b. there is only a 5% chance that the difference between the control group and the experimental groups is due to chance factors

c. the level of significance is .01

d. no level of significance has been set

### b.

23

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P = .05 really means that

a. differences truly exist; the experiment will obtain the same results 95 out of 100 times

b. differences truly exist; the experiment will obtain the same results 99 out of 100 times

c. there is a 95% error factor

d. there is a 10% error factor

### a.

24

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The study that would best rule out chance factors would have a significance level of P =

a. .05

b. .01

c. .001

d. .08

### c

25

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Type I and Type II errors are called ______ and ______ respectively.

a. beta; alpha

b. .01 and .05

c. a and b

d. alpha; beta

###
d. think RA ("reject" and "accept")

Type I - rejects null hypothesis when it is true

Type II - accept null when it is false

26

##
Type I error occurs when

a. you have a beta error

b. you accept null when it is false

c. you reject null when it is true

d. you fail to use a test of significance

### c.

27

##
Type II error

a. is also called a beta error

b. means you reject null when it is applicable

c. means you accept null when it is false

d. a and c

### d.

28

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Assume the experiment in question 708 is conducted. The results indicate that the biofeedback helped raises written board exam scores but in reality this is not the case. The researcher has made a

a. Type I error

b. Type II error

c. beta error

d. b and c

###
a. type I error

null hypothesis - reject that biofeedback will help raise exam scores

29

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A counselor educator decides to increase the sample size in her experiment. This will

a. confound the experiment in nearly every case

b. raise the probability of Type I and Type II errors

c. have virtually no impact on Type I and Type II errors

d. reduce Type I and Type II errors

### d.

30