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Flashcards in Social and Cultural Foundations Deck (102)
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America has been called the most diverse country on the face of our planet. Counseling a client from a different social and/or cultural background is known as
a. cross-cultural counseling
b. multicultural counseling
c. intercultural counseling
d. all of the above

d. all synonyms


Culture refers to
a. customs shared by a group which distinguish it from other groups
b. values shared by a group that are learned from others in the group
c. attitudes, beliefs, art, and language which characterize members of a group
d. all of the above



Our culture is more diverse that in the past. Multicultural counselors often work with persons who are culturally different. This means the client
a. is culturally biased
b. suffers from the diagnosis of cultural relativity
c. belongs to a different culture from the helper
d. presents problems which deal only with culturally charged issues



In order to diagnose clients from a different culture
a. the counselor ideally will need some information regarding the specifics of the culture
b. the counselor will find the DSM useless
c. the counselor will find the ICD diagnosis useless
d. NBCC ethics prohibit the use of DSM diagnosis when counseling clients from another culture



In the US, each socioeconomic group represents
a. a separate race
b. a separate culture
c. the silent middle class
d. a separate national culture



Which therapist was not instrumental in the early years of the social psychology movement
a. Freud
b. Durkheim
c. McDougall
d. Berne

d. Eric Berne - Father of transactional analysis


Founder of modern sociology is ______.

Emile Durkheim


_______ and ________ would say that regardless of culture, humans have an instinct to fight.
a. Maslow; Rogers
b. Ellis; Harper
c. Freud; Lorenz
d. Glasser; Rogers

c. Freud; Lorenz


________ believe that aggression is learned. Thus, a child who witnesses aggressive bx in adults may imitate the aggressive bx.
a. Instinct theorists
b. Innate aggression theorists
c. social learning theorists
d. Followers of Erik Erikson

c. social learning theorists


Social learning theory is associated with ________.

Albert Bandura - children who viewed live or filmed aggression imitated the bx


The APGA, which became the AACD until 1992 and is now the ACA, contributed to the growth of cross-cultural counseling by
a. the 1972 formation of the Association for Non-White Concerns in Personnel and Guidance, later known as the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development
b. the 1972 ethic which made it unethical to see culturally different clients without 3 hrs of relevant graduate work in this area
c. the 1972 ethic which required a 3,000 hour practicum in order to work with culturally different clients
d. urging nonwhites to take graduate counseling courses



Daniel Levinson proposed a theory with several major life transitions. He
a. is the Father of Multicultural Counseling.
b. wrote the 1978 classic Seasons of a Man's Life and the sequel Seasons of a Women's Life in 1997.
c. postulated a midlife crisis for men between ages 40-45 and for women approximately five years earlier.
d. b and c.

d. midlife crisis - 3 major transitions
1. Early adult transition - occur between ages 17-22 - leaving the family stag
2. Age 30 transition - ages (28-33), make the dream a reality
3. Midlife transition - ages 40-45, stressful, one's mortality becomes an issue
4. Later adulthood - ages 60-65, individual makes peace with the world


The three factors which enhance interpersonal attraction are
a. assertiveness, anxiety, ego strength
b. close proximity, physical attraction, similar beliefs
c. culture, race, assertiveness
d. ego strength, anxiety, race

Proxemics - study of proximity, relates to personal space, interpersonal distance, and territoriality


The tendency for people who are in close proximity to be attracted to each other is _________.



The term contextualism implies that
a. multicultural counseling is the oldest subspecialty in the profession
b. behavior must be assessed in the context of the culture in which the behavior occurs
c. the notion of worldview is highly inaccurate
d. projective tests are more accurate than objective measures when performing cross-cultural counseling



Carol Gilligan was critical of Lawrence Kholberg's theory of moral development
a. as she felt it was too psychoanalytic
b. as she felt it was too behavioristic
c. as she felt it was not applicable to African Americans
d. as she felt it was more applicable to males than females

d. females place more emphasis on caregiving and personal responsibility as opposed to men who focus more on individual rights and justice


_______ helped to abet the multicultural counseling movement.
a. Arthur Jensen's views on IQ testing (also known as Jensenism)
b. The civil rights movement
c. Jung's feeling that all men and women from all cultures possess a collective unconscious
d. The Tarasoff Duty

b. civil rights movement


When a counselor speaks of a probable outcome in a case, he or she is technically referring to
a. the prognosis
b. the diagnosis
c. the intervention
d. attending bx

a. prognosis - refers to the probability that one can recover from a condition


When a counselor speaks of what he or she believes must transpire from a psychotherapeutic standpoint, he or she technically is referring to
a. recommendations
b. the diagnosis
c. the prognosis
d. the notion of transference

a. recommendations


Some research suggests that very poor economic conditions correlates very highly with
a. passivity
b. nonassertive bx
c. a and b
d. aggression

d. aggression


A wealth of research demonstrates that
a. surprisingly enough, African Americans generally request Asian counselors
b. surprisingly enough, Asians generally request African American counselors
c. in most instances, clients prefer a counselor of the same race and a similar cultural background
d. in most instances, clients prefer a counselor of the same race, yet a different culture



The frustration-aggression theory is associated with
a. Albert Ellis
b. Robert Havighurst, who created the idea of the developmental task concept
c. Eric Berne, the creator of transactional analysis (TA)
d. John Dollard and Neal Miller

d. John Dollard and Neal Miller
Frustration occurs when an individual is blocked so that he or she cannot reach an intended goal (or the goal is removed) - Frustration leads to aggression


A popular balance theory in social psychology is _____ cognitive dissonance theory.
a. Dollard and Miller's
b. Crites and Roe's
c. Festinger's
d. Holland and Super's

c. Leon Festinger - individuals are motivated to reduce tension and discomfort
Balance theory - ppl strive for consistency/balance in terms of their belief systems, individuals attempt to reduce or eliminate inconsistent or incompatible actions and beliefs


A statistical norm measures actual conduct, while a cultural norm
a. describes how ppl are supposed to act
b. has little to do with expectations
c. is irrelevant when counseling a client
d. all of the above



Mores are beliefs
a. regarding the rightness or wrongness of bx
b. which should be the central focus in multicultural counseling
c. that are conscious decisions made by persons in power
d. that are identical with the folkways in the culture

a. Mores - the plural of mos, group decides what is good and bad for the welfare of the ppl

Folkways - describe correct, normal, or habitual bx
Mores - punishment (based on morals)
Folkways - embarrassment


______ was the first pioneer to focus heavily on sociocultural issues.
a. Mark Savickas - a major figure in career counseling
b. Alfred Adler - the Father of Individual Psychology
c. Maxie Maultsby - the Father of Rational Behavior Therapy (RBT)
d. Frank Parsons - the Father of Guidance, who wrote Choosing a vocation

d. Frank Parsons - social reformer


A counselor who is part of a research study will be counseling clients in the Polar Regions and then at a point near the equator. Her primary concern will be
a. universal culture
b. national culture
c. ecological culture
d. b and c

d. b and c


Biological similarities and sameness are indicated by
a. ecological culture
b. mores
c. regional and national culture
d. universal culture

d. universal culture


Early vocalization in infants
a. is more complex in African-American babies
b. is more complex in Caucasian babies
c. is nearly identical in all cultures around the globe
d. is the finest indicator of elementary school performance

c. identical in all cultures


In the 1920s, Emory Bogardus developed a social distance scale which evaluated
a. socioeconomic trends
b. how an individual felt toward other ethnic groups
c. disadvantaged youth
d. language barriers between Blacks and Asians

b. Bogardus data were indicative of negative attitudes toward a number of groups