M: Anterior and medial compartments of the thigh Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Term 2 C&M > M: Anterior and medial compartments of the thigh > Flashcards

Flashcards in M: Anterior and medial compartments of the thigh Deck (51):
1

What type of bone is the patellar?

Triangular sesamoid bone

2

The patellar develops within what?

The quadriceps tendon

3

What are the 6 bony landmarks of the patellar?

1) Base (superiorly)
2) Apex
3) Articular surface
4) Anterior surface
5) Lateral facet
6) Medial facet
Both facets on the posterior surface

4

Which quadriceps muscle acts to prevent the patellar being pulled too laterally?

Vastus medialis - it pulls at a much more oblique angle than the other 3 quadriceps

5

Other than the pull of vastus medialis, what other mechanism exists to prevent the patellar being pulled too laterally?

A bony ridge can be found on the lateral femoral condyle - if this is underdeveloped it may lead to recurrent dislocations of the patellar

6

A blow patellar may split or shatter the patellar - why in this situation may the fragments not be avulsed?

Because the quadriceps expansion remains intact

7

What is meant by the term avulsed?

An injury in which a bony structure is forcibly detached from its normal position either by trauma or surgery

8

Why is the knee reliant on the strength or surrounding muscles, ligaments and menisci for stability?

Because the articular surfaces of the knee joint are incongruent

9

What are menisci and where are they situated?

2 c shaped wedges of fibrocartilage which are thicker at the external margins
They sit on the tibial plateau

10

What are the 4 intrinsic muscles of the knee?

1) Fibular collateral ligament
2) Tibial collateral ligament
3) Anterior cruciate
4) Posterior cruciate

11

What is the combined function of the fibular and tibial collateral ligament?

Stabilize the hinge like movement of the knee

12

What is the function of the posterior cruciate ligament? 3

Prevents posterior displacement of the tibia on the femur
Prevents hyperflexion
Main stabiliser of the flexed knee when weight bearing eg. walking down a hill

13

What is the function of the anterior cruciate ligament?

Prevents anterior displacement of the tibia on the femur
Prevents hyperextension

14

Why are the medial (tibial) collateral ligament and medial menisci commonly injured simultaneously?

Because they are firmly attached together

15

What movements are possible at the knee joint? 4

1) Extension
2) Flexion
3) Medial rotation of the leg when knee flexed at 90 degrees
4) Lateral rotation of the leg when knee flexed at 90 degrees

16

What opening in the deep fascia does the great saphenous vein pass through?

Saphenous hiatus/opening

17

What is the function of the femoral triangle?

Provides a transit route from the thigh for the major vessels passing to and from the leg

18

What are the borders of the femoral triangle?

Base - inguinal ligament
Medial border - medial margin of adductor longus in the medial compartment
Lateral border - medial margin of sartorius muscle in the anterior compartment of the thigh
Floor - formed medially by pectineus and adductor longus in the medial compartment of the thigh and formed laterally by iliopsoas muscle in the anterior compartment of the thigh

19

What are the 4 contents of the femoral triangle?

1) Femoral nerve
2) Femoral artery
3) Femoral vein
4) Lymphatics

20

What muscles are supplied by the femoral nerve?

Muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh
4 quadriceps muscles
1) Rectus femoris
2) Vastus lateralis
3) Vastus medialis
4) Vastus intermedius
5) Sartorius muscle

21

What are the attachments of sartorius muscle?

Origin - ASIS
Insertion - Medial surface of tibia, inferomedial to tibial tuberosity

22

What is the innervation of sartorius muscle?

Femoral nerve (L2, L3)

23

What are the 2 actions of sartorius muscle?

1) Flexes thigh at hip joint
2) Flexes leg at knee joint

24

What forms the roof of the adductor canal?

Sartorius muscle

25

What is the function of the adductor canal?

Carries the femoral vessels and saphenous nerve between the femoral triangle and popliteal fossa

26

What are the boundaries of the adductor canal?

Anterior/roof = sartorius muscle
Lateral = vastus medialis
Posterior = adductor longus and adductor magnus

27

What marks the apex of the adductor canal?

Apex of the adductor canal is marked by the adductor hiatus

28

What is the adductor hiatus?

A gap between the adductor and hamstring attachments of adductor magnus

29

What are the orgins and insertions of rectus femoris?

Origin - straight head = AIIS, reflected head = Ilium superior to acetabulum
Insertion = Quadriceps femoris tendon

30

What is the innervation and 2 saction of rectus femoris?

Innervation = femoral nerve (L2-L4)
Actions = flexes thigh at hip joint, extends leg at knee joint

31

What is the origin and insertion of vastus lateralis?

Origin - femur (lateral intertrochanteric line, margin of greater trochanter, gluteal tuberosity and lateral lip of linea aspera
Insertion - quadriceps femoris tendon

32

What is the origin and insertion of vastus medialis?

Origin - femur (medial intertrochanteric line, pectineal line, medial lip of linea aspera, medial supracondylar line)
Insertion - quadriceps femoris tendon and medial border of patellar

33

What is the innervation and 1 action of vastus lateralis?

Femoral nerve L2-L4
Extends the leg at the knee joint

34

What is the innervation and 1 action of vastus medialis?

Femoral nerve L2-L4
Extends the leg at the knee joint

35

What is the origin and insertion of vastus intermedius?

Origin - femur (upper 2/3 of anterior and lateral surfaces)
Insertion - quadriceps femoris tendon and laterla margin of patellar

36

What is the innervation and 1 action of vastus intermedius?

Femoral nerve L2-4
Extends leg at knee joint

37

In addition to the 4 quadriceps and sartorius whar 2 other muscles does the anterior compartment contain?

1) Iliopsoas muscles
2) Pectineus

38

The medial compartment contains muscles which arise from where?

The external surface of the pubis and the ischiopubic ramus

39

What 5 muscles can be found in the medial compartment of the thigh?

1) Adductor longus
2) Adductor brevis
3) Adductor magnus
4) Gracilis
5) Obturator externus

40

What is the chief function of the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?

Adduct the thigh at the hip joint

41

What is the origin and insertion of adductor longus?

Origin - Body of pubis
Insertion - linea aspera on medial 1/3 of shaft of femur

42

What is the innervation of adductor longus?

Anterior division of obturator nerve L2-4

43

What is the origin and insertion of adductor brevis?

Origin - body of pubis and inferior pubic ramus
Insertion - post proximal femur and upper 1/3 of linea aspera

44

What is the innervation of adductor brevis?

Obturator nerve L2-3

45

What is the origin of the adductor part of adductor magnus?

Origin - ischiopubic ramus
Insertion - Posterior proximal femur, linea aspera and medial supracondylar line

46

What is the origin and insertion of the hamstring part of adductor magnus?

Origin - ischial tuberosity
Insertion - Adductor tubercle and supracondylar line

47

What are the 2 different innervations of the adductor part and hamstring part of adductor magnus?

Adductor part = obturator nerve L2-4
Hamstring part = tibial division of sciatic nerve L2-4

48

What is the origin and insertion of gracilis?

Origin - body of pubis, inferior pubic ramus and ramus of the ischium
Insertion - medial proximal tibia

49

What is the innervation of gracilis?

Obturator nerve L2-4

50

What is the origin and insertion of obturator externus?

Origin - external surface of obturator membrane and adjacent bone
Insertion - trochanteric fossa

51

What is the innervation of obturator externus?

Obturator nerve L3,L4