Memory Strategies I: Memory Strategies Informed By Memory Concepts (Chpt. 6) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Memory Strategies I: Memory Strategies Informed By Memory Concepts (Chpt. 6) Deck (26):
1

Memory Strategy

You perform mental activities that can help to improve your encoding and retrival

2

Levels of Processing/ Deeper Processing

recall information more accurately if you process it at a deep level rather than shallow level

3

Elaboration

relate this concept to your prior knowledge and to interconnected concepts that you have already mastered

4

Self-Reference

in which you enhance long term memory by relating the material to your own experiences

5

Encoding-Specificity Principle

which states that recall is often better in the context at the time of encoding matches the context at the time when your retrieval will be tested

6

Total time hypothesis

the amount of information that you learn depends on the total time you devote to learning

7

Distributed practice effect

you will remember more material if you spread your learning trials over time

8

Desirable difficulties

a learning situation that is somewhat challenging, but not too difficult

9

Testing Effect

Being tested on material also increases memory for the material

10

Mnemonics

are mental strategies designed to improve your memory
-interactive imagery remembering an image to a word/ linking different parts of a study list together
-keyword method an image related word keying each part of the study lost
-Method of loci imagine all parts of a list placed in a larger scene. A shopping list with items linked to doors, windows of an image of your house
-Organizing
-Chunking
-hierarchy (concept maps)

11

Keyword Method

you identify an English word (the keyword) that sounds similar to the new word you want to learn. Then you create an image that links the keyword with the meaning of this new word.

12

Organization

when people use mnemonics that involve organization they try to bring systematic order to the material they want to learn

13

Chunking

in which we combine several small units into larger units is a basic organizational principle that eases the processing demands on working memory

14

Hierarchy

is a system in which items are arranged in a series of classes from the most general classes to the most specific

ex.Genus Familia Kingdom of animals and plants

15

First letter technique

you take the first letter of each word you want to remember and then you compose a word or a sentence from those letters

16

Narrative technique

instructs people to make up stories that link a series of words together

17

Retrospective memory

remembering information that you acquired in the past

18

Prospective memory

remembering that you need to do something in the future

19

External memory aid

any device external to yourself that facilitates your memory in some way ex. shopping list, a rubberband around wrist, ringing of an alarm clock

20

Metacognition

refers to your knowledge and control of your cognitive process

includes mnemonics ( memory control strategies and metacognition ..)

21

Self Knowledge

or what people believe about themselves

22

Metamemory

a topic that refers to people's knowledge, monitoring, and control of their memory

1)when they predict their accuracy an individual test items, rather than total scores
2)when they predict their accuracy after a delay, rather than immediately after seeing the items
3)One key way to do so is by spending more time studying the difficult topics.

23

Tip of the tongue effect

describes your subjective experience of knowing the target word for which you are searching yet you cannot recall it right now

24

Feeling of knowing effect

Describes the subjective experience of knowing some information but you cannot recall it right

25

Tip of the finger effect

which refers to the subjective experience of knowing the target sign, but that sign is temporarily inaccessible

26

Metacomprehension

refers to your thoughts about language comprehension

Improving metacomprehension is to read a passage, wait a few minutes, and then try to explain the passage to yourself without looking at the written passage