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Flashcards in Menopause Deck (13):
1

define menopause

end of menstruation for 12 months with no biological cause

2

what happens to the hormone levels in menopause

oestrogen decreases causing a rise in FSH and LH

3

which hormone will rise more, LH or FSH

FSH as inhibin is no longer produced

4

what are the 4 phases of menopause

pre-menopause = time prior to menopause where changes to the menstrual cycle start to occur
peri-menstrual = the transition phase
menopause = where menstruation stops for 12 months
post menopause = the time after

5

what is pathological menopause

gradual or abrupt cessation of menstruation before 40

6

what symptoms are seen in menopause

irritability, night sweats, hot flushes, bloated, sleepy

7

what CVS effects are there in menopause

increased cholesterol, increased risk of heart disease/stroke, increased BP

8

what are the bone changes seen in menopause

osteoporosis - the lack of oestrogen means osteoclast activity is now not inhibited

9

what happens to the androgen levels in menopause

they decline later then oestrogen

10

what is dysfunctional uterine bleeding

this is seen as spotting between cycles, heavy menstrual flow, mid-cycle bleed, unpredictable cycles

11

why does dysfunctional uterine bleeding occur

there is continued oestrogen causing the thickening of the endometrium - however as there is no production of a corpus luteum there is no progesterone to help shed this thickening

12

what must be taken with HRT and why

progesterone must also be taken as the oestrogen can cause endometrial carcinoma - however the progesterone has anti-proliferative effects

13

what does HRT put you at a higher risk of

breast cancer
DVTs/PEs