Sex and Fertility Flashcards Preview

Reproductive System > Sex and Fertility > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sex and Fertility Deck (44):
1

how do sperm mature in the epididymus

they begin to be able to move and have the potential to fertilise

2

what is the sperm maturation in the epididymus dependant on

testosterone

3

what is capacitation

where the sperms tail starts to move in a whip like action and its acrosome is lost enabling it to enter the oocyte

4

what digestive enzyme is found in the sperms acrosome

hualronidase

5

where do the sperm bind on the bona pellucida

ZP3 receptor

6

what makes up the majority of seminal fluid

the seminal vesicles

7

describe the fluid produced by the seminal vesicles

it is alkaline, and has fructose

8

what proportion of the seminal plasma is made by the prostate gland

25%

9

describe the fluid produced by the prostrate gland

milky, contains citric acid for calcium ion chelation

10

what glands produce a very same amount of seminal fluid

bulbourethral glands

11

what is cervical mucus like before ovulation

very thin and stretchy due to high oestrogen

12

what is cervical mucus like after ovulation

thick and sticky

13

where does fertilisation occur

in the ampulla of the fallopian tubes

14

what is a cortical reaction

where the oocyte empties its cortical granules - this changes its membrane to stop further sperm from entering

15

where does implantation occur

on the superior, posterior uterine wall

16

what is placenta preavia

where implantation occurs over the internal os

17

what nervous system causes an erection

parasympathetic

18

through which nerves is an erection initiated

the pelvic nerves

19

what does the parasympathetic NS do to cause an erection

causes the release of NO which increases arterial dilation, sinusoid relaxation and venous compression

20

true or false: the corpus spongiosum expands in an erection

false - this would block the urethra

21

what can cause erectil dysfunction

drugs, alcohol, tears in the albuginea

22

what does viagra do

slows down the rate of cGMP degrading, os theres more NO giving more blood flow to the penis

23

which nervous system controls ejaculation

sympathetic nervous system

24

what is emission

contraction of smooth muscle in the vas deferens, prostrate and seminal vesicles to move semen into the prostatic urethra

25

what effect may sympathetic antagonists on ejaculation

they can cause a dry orgasm as they prevent smooth muscle contraction

26

how does the combines oestrogen and progesterone pill work

inhibits ovulations by preventing the LH surge, also inhibits endometrial proliferation and makes the mucus thicker

27

how does the low dose progesterone pill work

does not inhibit ovulation
just makes the cervical mucus thicker

28

how does the intrauterine system work

contains high dose progesterone which inhibits the LH surge as well as thickening mucus and inhibiting endometrial proliferation

29

how does the intrauterine device work

it is made of copper which is toxic to sperm

30

define sub fertility

the failure of conception in a couple having regular, unprotected sex

31

what is primary infertility

where the couple have never conceived before

32

what is secondary infertility

where the couple have conceived before but can't now

33

name some male causes of infertility

endocrine such as diabetes, hyperprolactineamia
genetic
vasculature
obstructive
STIs
drugs

34

name some ovulatory causes of infertility

hypothalamic-pituitary failure
ovulatory failure
hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian failure

35

give 2 examples of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian failure

PCOS
hyperprolactinaemia

36

what is PCOS

where women have too much androgens due to insulin resistance
this gives a lack of pulsatile GnRH
this causes abnormally high LH and oestrogen causing anolvulation

37

what is anolvulation

where ovulation does always occur

38

what does PCOS stand for

polycystic ovary disorder

39

how do patients with PCOS present

weight gain, increased hair, amenorrhea, infertility

40

what long term consequences of PCOS must you be aware of

developing diabetes due to the insulin resistance
oestrogen causing endometrial malignacies

41

what can be used to treat hyperprolactinemoa

dopamine/bromocriptine

42

what types of uterine damage can cause infertility

fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis and development abnormalities

43

what types of tubal damage can cause infertility

endometriosis, pelvic surgery or pelvic infections

44

what is assisted reproduction techniques

where the oocytes are fertilised in vitro and allowed to develop into a morula. one of these cells is tested for genetic defects before being inserted into the mother