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Flashcards in Male Reproductive system Deck (45):
1

at what temperature does spermatogenesis occur

35 degrees

2

what occurs in the epididymis

sperm maturation

3

what occurs in the efferent ductules

excess fluid is lost and the sperm become more concentrated

4

where does spermatogenesis occur

seminiferous tubules

5

what is hydrocoele

when the sac surrounding the testicle fills with fluid

6

what do Sertoli cells do

allow for sperm formation and maturation

7

where are Sertoli cells found

in the seminiferous tubules

8

what do leydig cells do

produce testosterone

9

where are leydig cells found

outside the seminiferous tubules in the interstitum

10

which organelles are abundant in leading cells

SER and lipid droplets

11

describe the testicular arterial blood supply

blood supply comes from the abdominal aorta

12

describe the testicular venous drainage

the left side drains into the renal artery and then the IVC but the right testicular vein drains directly into the IVC

13

describe the lymphatic drainage of the testicles

the lymphatics drain to the para aortic nodes

14

where is the scrotal lymphatic drainage

in the inguinal area

15

what cancer would enlarged lymph nodes in the groin suggest

scrotal cancer

16

what is testicular torsion

twisting of the spermatic cord occluding the veins, this increases pressure, ultimately occluding the arteries

17

after how long after a testicular torsion is it likely that the testicle won't be saved

12 hours

18

what is the treatment for testicular torsion

surgery to untwist the cord and fixation of the testes

19

true or false; the ureter passes under the vas deferens

true - remember water under the bridge

20

what is the function of the prostrate

- stops urine escaping as it surrounds the urethra
- produces an alkaline solution to neutralise the vaginas acidity

21

what does the seminal vesicle do

produces a fructose rich solution to make up 2/3 of the volume of the secreted solution

22

what part of the prostrate does BPH affect

transitional zone

23

what are the symptoms of BPH

urinary problems as it compresses the urethra

24

what part of the prostrate does prostrate cancers affect

peripheral zone

25

true or false; prostrate cancers give urinary problems

false - as the masses don't impinge on the urethra

26

on rectal examination would you be able to feel for BPH and prostrate cancers

only prostrate cancers

27

describe the structure of the cross section of the penis

pair of corpus cavernosum
corpus spongiosum surrounding the urethra

28

what is vasodilation of the blood vessels in the penis initiated by

parasympathetic nervous system

29

true or false; the sympathetic nervous system initiates an erection

false - it terminates one by vasoconstriction

30

true or false; the sympathetic nervous system initiates ejaculation

true

31

describe the tunica albuginea of the penis

there are 2 layers of collagen fibres arranged at right angles to each other

32

describe the arterial blood supply to the penis

from the internal iliac artery to the internal pudendal artery

33

what is the advantage of the pampimiform venous system

it allows for maximum heat transfer from the testicular artery meaning the testes can remain cool

34

how would you detect a testicular cancer

through MRI as the testes lymph drainage goes to the para aortic nodes which can't be palpated

35

what is varicoele

swelling of the pampimiform venous plexus

36

why does varicoele normal occur in the left testis

as the left venous drainage is more congested as it goes into the renal vein first

37

why might varicoele occur on the right

due to a mass/obstruction/tumour in the IVC

38

what is haematocoele

where vessel damage means blood accumulates in the tunica vaginalis

39

what structural difference makes testicular torsion more common

bell clapper shaped tunica vaginalis

40

list some reasons for testicular swelling

infection, inflammation, torsion, haematocoele, varicoele, hydrocoele, cyst

41

what are the 3 nerves in the spermatic cord

ilioinguinal nerve, nerve to vas deferens, cremasteric nerve

42

what are the 3 fascia in the spermatic cord

internal spermatic, cremasteric, external spermatic

43

what are the 3 veins in the spermatic cord

vein to vas deferens, testicular vein, cremasteric vein

44

what are the 3 arteries in the spermatic cord

artery to vas deferens, cremasteric, testicular

45

what are the layers of the scrotum

skin
dartos fascia
external spermatic fascia
cremasteric fascia and muscle
internal spermatic fascia
tunica vaginalis
tunica aberguinea