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Flashcards in Metazoans Deck (90):
1

Egg ingestion

EAT
E. vermicularis
Ascaris lumbricoides
Trichuris Truichira (whipworm)

2

Cutaneous entry

Feet on the SANd
Strongyloides
Anycylostoma
Necator

3

Lung involvement

don't want SANd in lungs
Strongyloides
Ascaris
Necator

4

No lung/swollow/tissue invasion (No inc eosinophils)

E. vermicularis
Trichuris trichiuris

5

Inc eosinophils

strongyloides, Trichinosis, Toxecara

6

Most common helminth infection in USA

Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)

7

Urban daycare

Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)

8

how do you dx Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)

scotch tape test for eggs

9

how do you tx Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)

2x pyrental pamoate (whole family) + change sheets

10

on microscopy you see eggs flattened on one side

Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)

11

life cycle of Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)

ingested eggs --> small intestine larvae emerge -->mature and adults in cecum & ascending L intestine --> scratch perianal area --> hand mouth reinfection

12

perianal irritation @ night + GI problems

Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)

13

Malnourished poor person in the tropics comes in w/ bloody diarrhea & prolapsed rectum

T trichiuris (whipworm)

14

how do you dx T trichiuris (whipworm)

eggs in stool

15

how do you tx T trichiuris (whipworm)

bendazole + re-treatment

16

life cycle of T trichiuris (whipworm)

(slow) eggs ingested --> small intestine where larvae emerge --> become adult in cecum --> thousands of eggs per day --> binary fission occurs in soil and can then reinfect

17

on microscopy you see football shaped eggs w/ bipolar plugs

T trichiuris (whipworm)

18

pt in SE USA comes in w/ lung involvement, endocarditis & peripheral eosinophelia

Ascaris Lumbricoides

19

how do you dx Ascaris Lumbricoides

eggs VISIBLE in stool

20

how do you treat Ascaris Lumbricoides

pyrantel pamoate + mebendazole (resistant to disinfectants

21

on microscopy you see eggs w/ irregular coating and a 30 cm long worm

Ascaris Lumbricoides

22

What is the life cycle of Ascaris Lumbricoides

egs ingested --> larvae in small intestine --> enter lymphatics and get to the lung, coughed and swallowed --> survive as adults in intestine for 1-2 yrs and produce 200K eggs daily…. requires to be in soil to be infectious

23

ball of worms in intestine

Ascaris Lumbricoides

24

how do you prevent Ascaris Lumbricoides

proper sewage and washing hands

25

person eats raw pork/dear/bear and gets fever, muscle ache w/ eosinophilia

Trichinella Spiralis

26

how do you dx Trichinella Spiralis

Hx of eating meat, high eos, high CPK, cysts in skeletal muscle

27

how do you prevent Trichinella Spiralis

cook your meat

28

find cysts in tissue

Trichinella Spiralis

29

life cycle of Trichinella Spiralis

eat poorly cooked meat w/ encysted larvae --> small intestine where adults mate --> males excreted, females into circulation and skeletal muscle

30

What is the MCC of childhood anemia world wide

Hookworm (N americanus + A duodenale)

31

where is Necater americanus hookworm found

america, africa, australia, & S asia

32

where is Ancylostoma duodenal hookworm found

mediterranean + N asia

33

how do you dx Hookworm (N americanus + A duodenale)

eggs in stool

34

how do you treat Hookworm (N americanus + A duodenale)

mebendezole, wear shoes, sanitation, tx carriers

35

life cycle of Hookworm (N americanus + A duodenale)

larvae penetrate feet --> lungs --> intestine --> grasp onto intestinal villi and eat tissue
-migratory w/ inflammation & eosinophilia

36

how does Hookworm (N americanus + A duodenal) cause anemia

larvae make anticoagulant and eating intestinal tissue causes bleeding

37

creeping eruption

think Hookworm (N americanus + A duodenale)

38

on microscopy there are eggs w/ clear outer shell and adults w/ teeth

Hookworm (N americanus + A duodenale)

39

Purpuric papule (skin) + loeffler's syndrome (lung eosinophilic pneumonitis) + pain/diarrhea (intestinal) in IC pt

Strongyloides stercoralis

40

how do you dx Strongyloides stercoralis

larvae in stool + sputum

41

how do you tx Strongyloides stercoralis

Ivermectin and Albendazole

42

life cycle of Strongyloides stercoralis

larvae infect from soil --> penetrate skin enter circulatory system --> lung vomit/swollow --> intestine auto infect (IC) or larvae excreted
-Eggs not in feces

43

Dog or cat

Toxecara canis/cati

44

life cycle of Toxecara canis/cati

eggs from dog/cat roundworm ingested --> circulation --> lung liver& eyes--> inflammatory necrosis

45

asymptomatic eosinophilia w/ granulomas and possible blindness

Toxecara canis/cati

46

what kind of host is the human when infected w/ Toxecara canis/cati

accidental host (dead-end)

47

how do you tx Toxecara canis/cati

diethylcarbamazine

48

elephantitis

Wuchereria Bancrofti

49

how do you dx Wuchereria Bancrofti

blood microfilaria @ night

50

how do you tx Wuchereria Bancrofti

diethylcarbamazine and steroids

51

what is the life cycle of Wuchereria Bancrofti

microfilariae transmitted by mosquito --> lymph nodes/vessels --> inflammation & blockage of lymphatic system --> elephantitis

52

blackfly

Oncocerca Volvulus

53

how do you dx Oncocerca Volvulus

microfilaria in superficial skin clips

54

how do you tx Oncocerca Volvulus

Ivermectin

55

what is the life cycle of Oncocerca Volvulus

black fly infects human --> microfilariae mature and mate in skin -->die and cause inflammation & black skin nodules/intraepithelial granulomas or travel to eye and cause blindness

56

blind person with black skin nodules in africa or central america

Oncocerca Volvulus (black fly; black skin nodules, black sight)

57

how do you dx Schistosoma

hx, egg ID in urine or feces

58

how do you tx Schistosoma

praziquantel + snail control

59

what is the intermediate host of Schistosoma

snails

60

what is the life cycle of Schistosoma

eggs hatch in freshwater and swim to snails --> larvae released and infect human (skin to portal blood) then go to either intestine (mansoni, japonicum) or bladder (Hematobium) --> excreted in urine/feces

61

eosinophilia, dermatitis, portal HTN, hepatosplenomegaly

Schistosoma Mansoni & Schistosoma Japonicum

62

gladder grnulomas, TERMINAL HEMATURIA, bladder cancer

Schistosoma hematobium

63

what are the 3 trematodes

Schistosoma, clonorchis sinesis (chines liver fluke), & pragonimus westermani (lung fluke)

64

eat undercooked fish in asia, inflammation of liver/biliarytract --> pigmented stones + cholangiocarcinoma

clonorchis sinesis (chines liver fluke)

65

life cycle of clonorchis sinesis (chines liver fluke)

freshwater eggs to snails --> infect fish --> humans eat metacercariae

66

leaf-like on microscopy

clonorchis sinesis (chines liver fluke)

67

how do you dx clonorchis sinesis (chines liver fluke)

eggs in feces

68

how do you tx clonorchis sinesis (chines liver fluke)

praziquantel

69

eats undercooked crab & starts coughing up blood

pragonimus westermani (lung fluke)

70

how do you dx pragonimus westermani (lung fluke)

eggs in sputum

71

how do you tx pragonimus westermani (lung fluke)

praziquantel

72

what is the lifecycle of pragonimus westermani (lung fluke)

freshwater eggs, larvae swim to snail and infect crab --> metacercariae eaten by human

73

what are the 3 cestodes

Taenia solium(pork)/saginata(beef), Diphyllobothrium latum, Echinococcus granulosus (hydatid cyst dz)

74

young man w/ seizures in mexico, india, or africa

Taenia solium(pork)/saginata(beef)

75

how do you dx Taenia solium(pork)/saginata(beef)

eggs in proglottidis / stool

76

swiss cheese brain

Taenia solium(pork)/saginata(beef)

77

how do you tx Taenia solium(pork)/saginata(beef)

praziquantel
cook beef/pork & inspection

78

Life cycle of Taenia solium(pork)/saginata(beef)

ingest larvae in undercooked pork/beef --> tapeworm attaches to mucosa via scolex --> eggs excreted in feces --> pigs/cattle graze on soil and eat egg-infected feces

79

what happens if humans ingest the eggs of Taenia solium(pork)/saginata(beef) instead of the larvae

cysticercosis (swiss cheese brain) headaches and seizures

80

B12 deficiency + anemia after eating raw fish

Diphyllobothrium latum

81

how do you dx Diphyllobothrium latum

hx + eggs in stool

82

see a very large tape worm on microscopy and looks like a fish

Diphyllobothrium latum

83

life cycle of Diphyllobothrium latum

eggs in water convert to motile larva -->ingested by crustacean --> fish --> human

84

sheep herding

Echinococcus granulosus

85

how do you dx Echinococcus granulosus

hx + serology + eosinophilia

86

how do you tx Echinococcus granulosus

surgery (cyst) + mebendazole

87

small tapeworm on microscopy

Echinococcus granulosus

88

life cycle of Echinococcus granulosus

dog ingests cysts and eggs are excreted --> sheep ingest eggs

Humans are dead end host that ingest eggs released by dogs --> circulation --> liver and brain

89

hydatid cyst

Echinococcus granulosus

90

slow growing cysts, jaundice, inc ICP in a pt from spain

Echinococcus granulosus