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Flashcards in Protozoa Deck (91):
1

describe protozoa

single-celled eukaryotic organisms

2

What is the STD parasite

Trichomonas Vaginalis

3

how do you dx trichomonas vaginalis

PCR + trophozoite in discharge

4

What is the tx for trichomonas vaginalis

metronidazole for pt & partner

5

What is the life cycle of trichomonas vaginalis

human genital tract--> REPLICATES BY BINARY FISION --> transmitted via sexual contact

6

frothy greenish discharge

T. vaginalis

7

Strawberry cervix

T. vaginalis

8

Twitching trophozite

T. vaginalis

9

on microscopy you see a trophozoite w/ undulating membrane, 4 anterior flagella and single nucleus

T. vaginalis

10

MC cause of Amebic dysentary

Entamoeba Histolytica

11

How do you dx Entamoeba Histolytica

Cysts in stool, serology, Ameba antigen + PCR

12

How do you tx Entamoeba histolytica

Metronidazole (but doesn't clear it)

13

Life cycle of Entamoeba histolytica

fecal-oral --> excitation back to trophozoite in small intestine --> migrate to large intestine

14

what are the 3 types of presentations for entamoeba histolytica and how do they present

1. Asyptomatic: trophozoites produce cysts that live outside the body
2. Intestinal dz: "flask shaped" abscesses in L intestine --> bloody dysentary
3. Liver dz: gets to portal circulation --> liver abscesses w/ anchovy paste aspirate

15

anchove paste aspirate in liver

Entamoeba histolytica (w/ liver dz)

16

Flask shaped ulcers in intestine

Entamoeba histolytica (w/ intestinal dz)

17

rounded elevated mucosa of intestine w/ necrotic centers and edematous tissue

describes flask shaped ulcers in Entamoeba histolytica

18

on microscopy you see a single nucleus trophozoite w/ ingested RBC

Entamoeba histolytica

19

You suspect a parasite and the pt has RUQ pain and dysentary

Entamoeba histolytica

20

What are the 3 parasites that cause intestinal issues

Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, & Cryptosporidium

21

daycare worker w/ low nutrients, uncontrollable flatulence, bloating, foul-smelling steatorrhea

Giardia lamblia

22

Camper w/ low nutrients, uncontrollable flatulence, bloating, foul-smelling steatorrhea

Giardia lamblia

23

Life cycle of giardia?

cysts in water ingested by camper --> trophozoite multiply by BINARY FISION --> excitation --> move to colon and cover and flatten intestinal epithelium (no absorption -> diarrhea)

24

on microscopy you see a trophozoite w/ 2 nuclei, symmetrical axostyles, & suction discs

Giardia lamblia

25

on microscopy you see a cyst w/ 4 nuclei and a well defined wall

Giardia lamblia

26

how do you dx giardia lamblia

symptoms + cysts/trophs in stool

27

how do you tx giardia

metronidazole

28

What do you think of when you hear someone gets sick after swimming at a waterpark or reservoir

Cryptosporidium

29

who is most likely to get infected with cryptosporidium

the IC

30

What would an HIV pt w/ cryptosporidium present w/

ascending cholangitis

31

Milwalkee

cryptosporidium

32

How do you dx cryptosporidium

Serology

33

how do you tx cryptosporidium

Nitazoxanide

34

what is the life cycle of cryptosporidium

infectious oocyst releases sporozoites into gastric epithelium which differentiate into merozoites (asexually). these differentiate into gametes which fuze into a zygote which make oocysts

35

Acid fast oocyst

cryptosporidium

36

IC pt w/ watery diarrhea +/- gallbladder, biliary tract, & lung dz

Cryptosporidium

37

how do you estimate the severity of cryptosporidium infection in an immunocompetent pt

# ingested oocysts correlates w/ severity of diarrhea

38

how do you dx toxoplasma gondii infection

serology
CT for congenital toxoplasmosis

39

what is the tx for toxoplasma gondii

Sulfadiazine + Pyrimethamine

40

what is the definite host of toxoplasma gondii

cat

41

what is the intermediate host of toxoplasma gondii

human

42

what is the life cycle of toxoplasma gondii

sexually divides in cats --> injest cysts from UNCOOKED MEAT & CAT FECES

43

ring enhancing lesions (brain abscess)

HIV pt w/ toxoplasma gondii

44

chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, & intracranial calcifications

classic triad for congenital toxoplasmosis

45

acute rapid deterioration w/in 1 week of swimming in fresh water

Naegleria Fowleri

46

what is the most rapidly fatal cause of meningoencephalitis

Naegleria Fowleri

47

how do you dx Naegleria Fowleri

amoebas in CSF

48

Nedipots

Naegleria Fowleri

49

Divers

Naegleria Fowleri

50

what is the life cycle of Naegleria Fowleri

swimming then the flagellated form enters via cribriform plate to brain

51

primary amebic meningoencephalitis

Naegleria Fowleri

52

suspect bacterial CSF (dec glu, inc protein, inc PMN), but does not gram stain

Naegleria Fowleri

53

Eye infection w/ someone who wears contacts

Acanthamoeba Keratitis

54

what is the tx for Acanthamoeba Keratitis

topical Rx + steroids

55

if someone has a bacterial infection of the eye and still wears contacts

Acanthamoeba Keratitis

56

what 2 forms of Tyrpanosoma Brucei are there and what location in the world are they associated w/

Gambiense (w. africa)
Rhodensiense (E. africa)

57

how do you dx Tyrpanosoma Brucei

card agglutination test

58

what is the tx for Tyrpanosoma Brucei

Blood stage: Suramin
CNS stage: Melarsoprol

59

Tsetse fly

Tyrpanosoma Brucei

60

Life cycle of Tyrpanosoma Brucei

tsetse fly bite --> trypomastigote spread in blood to lymph nodes + CNS

61

How does Tyrpanosoma Brucei become a recurrent problem

Antigenic variation (variable surface GPs)

62

what would you see on microscopy if infected w/ Tyrpanosoma Brucei

trypomastigote w/ kinetoplast + UNDULATING MEMBRANE

63

Chancre that heals in 2 wks, then develop LAD & fever, eventually causing coma and death

Tyrpanosoma Brucei

64

what is the hallmark of african sleeping sickness

Encephalitis

65

person in south america

Chagas dz T cruzi

66

What bug causes chagas

Reduviid bug

67

Life cycle of T cruzi

feeds on humans while sleeping, defecates while eating (releases Trypomastigotes) --> penetrates skin (forms chagoma) --> transform into amastigote --> replicate and infect

68

Unilateral facial swelling @ bite site

T cruzi (chagas)

69

Damage to nerve ganglia causing dilated cardiomyopathy, megacolon, and megaesophagus

T cruzi (chagas)

70

What are the 3 leishmania bugs and what do they cause

L. Donovani - visceral
L Braziliensis - mucocutaneous
L. Tropica - cutaneous

71

Veteran from afghanistan

Leishmania

72

How do you dx leishmania

serology and protozoa in liver/spleen

73

how do you tx leishmania

Sodium Sibogluconate

74

Life cycle of leishmania

Sand fly bites host --> Promastigote invades MACROPHAGE --> transforms into non-motile amastigote in RES system

75

ulcer @ site of infection that is self limiting

Cutaneous leishmania (L donovani)

76

ulcers lead to erosion of nasal septum palate and lips (mucoid tissue)

mucocutanious leishmania (L braziliensis)

77

Hepatomegaly, massive splenomegaly w/ pancytopenia

Kala Azar (visceral leishmania - L tropica)

78

How do you dx malaria

geimsa smear + immunochromatograph

79

cyclic Fever w/ chills and anemia, headache, splenomegaly

malaria

80

What is the worst form of malaria

falciparum

81

patient from thailand

mefloquine resistant malaria

82

Life cycle of Plasmodium

Anopheles mosquito injects sporozoites when feeding --> makes way to liver (start of pre-erythrocytic cycle)--> forms trophozoite which divides into thousands of schizonts and make merozoites which are released when the cell bursts--> infect RBC Merozoites become gametes and can be picked up with mosquito bite

83

fever on 1st and 3rd day

Vivax/ovale

84

fever on 1st and 4th day

Malariae

85

irregular pattern of fever btw 36-48 hrs

falciparum

86

what is a major feature of infected RBCs in falciparum malaria

Rosetting

87

What carries babesia

Ixodes tick (same as lyme dz)

88

on peripheral smear you see a maltese cross

babesia

89

Most commonly seen in NE USA

Babesia

90

fever, hemolytic anemia, asplenia

babesia

91

what is the tx for babesia

quinine, clindamycin