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Flashcards in Midterm Week 3 Deck (24)
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how are herbs prepared for ingestion?

cut & processed by standard size, cleaned, sorted and washed out


what is pao zhi?

general term for any type of herb processing
to increase potency, to direct its actions to a certain place, to minimize side effects, to increase or alter the properties of an herb


how do we increase an herbs surface area? and why?

either to slice or pulverize the herb to get the most of its properties


what is dry frying?

chao; browning to dry herbs for storage and increase the SP awakening, ST strengthening action of the herbs


why is salt sometimes used with dry frying?

stir frying with salt directs their actions downward to the KI


what does charring do?

stir frying until charred (tan) increases the herbs hemostatic ability


what does frying with honey do?

increases an herb's tonifying and moistening actions


what does frying with vinegar do?

enhances its astringent, analgesic, blood-invigorating and detoxifying actions


what does frying with wine do?

enhances its ability to clear blockages from the channels, expel wind and alleviate pain


what does frying with ginger juice do?

reduces the tendency of bitter and cold herbs to upset the ST; enhances some herbs ability to warm the ST and stop vomiting


what is calcining?

placing a substance directly or indirectly in the flames until it is thoroughly heated and turns red. makes the substance brittle and easy to pulverize
*used for minerals and shells


the strongest method of delivery to the weakest

decoction- granules- pills


how long do we generally cook a decoction?

usually cooked for 20-30 min, but depends on the ingredients


in what situations do we cook for shorter period of time?

formulas that release the exterior, clear heat or contain herbs with volatile oils (aromatic) should be cooked over a high flame for a shorter period of time (10-15 min)


in what situations do we cook for longer period of time?

tonics and other formulas with rich, cloying substances should be cooked over a relatively low flame for a longer period of time (45-60min) to extract as much as possible.
toxic substances should be cooked for at least 45 min to reduce their toxicity.


what type of herbs are "decocted first"?

toxic herbs, minerals and shells, lightweight substances in a large dosage


what type of herbs are added near the end?

aromatic herbs, Da Huang to have a strong purgative effect


what kind of substances need to be bagged in guaze?

herbs with cilia, small seeds, some minerals, powdered substances


what type of substances are decocted separately?

rare and expensive substances


what type of substances are dissolved in a strained decoction?

highly viscous or sticky substances because they would stick to the pot or the other herbs and reduce the effect of decocting


which are taken with a strained decoction?

some expensive, aromatic substances are ground into a powder and taken first, followed by the strained decoction.
also with precious horns, which are shaved or filed into a powder and ingested, followed by the decoction.


what are the two types of herb / drug interactions to be cautious about?

pharmacokinetic interaction, pharmacodynamic reacion


pharmacokinetic interaction?

change absorption, distribution, metabolism or elimination


pharmacodynamic reaction?

alter the way in which a drug or herb effects a tissue or organ system. hard to predict. can be synergistic or antagonistic.