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Flashcards in SK Week 3 Deck (54)
0

How are herbs prepared for ingestion?

cleaned, sorted, washed, and cut according to specific standards, which includes sizing the pieces for the final product.

1

What natural and man-made contaminants can make herbs unfit for consumption?

mold, microbes, pesticides and heavy metals

2

What is Pao Zhi?

A general term for any type of herb processing. Can be used to:
- increase potency
- direct its actions to a certain place
- minimize side effects
- alter properties

3

Why are herbs prepared?

Unless one uses quality herbs it is hard to get quality results.

4

How do we increase an herbs surface area?

Slicing or pulverizing (grounding, pounding, filing)

5

Why do we want to increase an herb's surface area?

Makes it easier for extraction and digestion

6

DRY FRYING:
What is it?
Why is salt sometimes used?
What does charring do?

- browning is used to dry herbs for storage and increase the SP-awakening/ST-strengthening action of the herbs
- stir frying with salt directs their actions downward to the KD
- stir frying until charred (tan) increases the herbs hemostatic ability

7

DRY FRYING WITH LIQUIDS

What actions are increased when using honey, vinegar, wine or ginger juice?

- honey increases an herb's tonifying and moistening actions
- vinegar enhances astringent, analgesic, blood-invigorating and detoxifying actions
- wine enhances its ability to clear blockages from channels, expel wind and alleviate pain
- ginger juice reduces the tendency of bitter and cold herbs to upset the ST. Also enhances some herbs ability to warm the ST and stop vomiting.

8

What is calcining and what is it used for?

Placing a substance directly or indirectly in the flames until it is thoroughly heated and turns red. Makes the substance brittle and easy to pulverize

Used for minerals and shells

9

What is Quick Frying and why is it used?

fried at an extremely high temperature until it is dark brown or cracked

this reduces its toxicity or moderates its harsh characteristics

10

DRY CURING OR BAKING

What is it and what substances are generally dry cured or baked?

slow, mild heat to avoid charring the herb

often used with flowers or insects so they are not destroyed

11

ROASTING IN ASHES

What is it?

Wrapping the herb in moistened paper, paste or mud and heating it in hot cinders until the coating is charred or cracked and its insides have reached a high temperature

12

HEAT & WATER

What is Steaming?

After steaming, herbs are dried in the sun.

13

After steaming Sheng di Huang 9 times, what does it transform to?

Shu di Huang

14

HEAT & WATER

What is Boiling?

Done in water or some other medium, such as vinegar, to alter its characteristics or toxicity.

15

HEAT & WATER

What is Quenching?

Substances (usually minerals) are heated and then immediately immersed in cold water or vinegar.

16

Why is Quenching used?

Facilitates pulverization and moderates their properties

17

HEAT & WATER

What is Simmering and what is its end product?

Herb is reduced to a thickened liquid or syrup by boiling in several changes of water, collecting the supernatants, and then condensing and solidifying it into a gel.

18

What are the 7 methods of delivery?

1) Decoction, 2) Drafts, 3) Pills, 4) Powders, 5) Syrups,
6) Plasters, 7) Wines

19

What is a decoction?

Literally, 'soup' (tang), are solutions and suspensions that are readily absorbed, thus expediting their effect

Often used for acute conditions

20

What are the general guidelines and rules for using decoctions?

- don't use aluminum pots or cooking utensils (corning ware or porcelain pots are preferred)
- use a tight fitting lid (keep herbs covered so "flavors" don't escape)
- soaking herbs helps the extraction of ingredients when decocting
- bring to boil then reduce heat

21

What are the 3 solvents used in decoction and what function do they enhance?

- water - most common
- wine - invigorates Blood
- vinegar - astringing

22

What are the 2 types of heat used in decoctions?

Military Fire - high flames
Civilian Fire - low flames

23

How long are decoctions generally cooked?

20-30 minutes

24

When should herbs be decocted for shorter periods of time and how should they be cooked?

- formulas that Release the Exterior, Clear Heat or contain herbs with volatile oils (aromatic) should be cooked over a high flame for 10-15 min

25

How should Tonics and other formulas with rich, cloying substances be cooked and why?

over a relatively low flame for a longer period of time (45-60min) to extract as much as possible

26

How should Toxic substance be cooked and why?

for at least 45 min to reduce their toxicity

27

Describe the most common method of decoction?

1) decocting the herb twice, using less water the 2nd time
2) both times the herbs are boiled down to 1 cup of liquid
3) discard the herbs
4) combine the 2 cups of liquid

28

How are herbs generally taken?

- take 1 cup 2x daily, or 2/3 of a cup 3x daily
- decoctions are generally taken before meals

29

When are decoctions taken after meals?

if the ingredients irritate the digestive tract

30

How should Tonics be taken?

on an empty stomach

31

When should Calm the Spirit formulas be taken?

before bed

32

When should formulas for a malarial disorder be taken?

2 hours before an attack if the timing is regular

33

Even when the disorder is due to excess heat, what temperature are herbs usually taken?

warm

34

When are herbs not taken warm?

if it causes nausea and vomiting

35

What type of herbs are decocted first?

1) toxic herbs
2) minerals and shells
3) lightweight substances in a large dosage

36

What type of herbs are added near the end?

aromatic

37

What kind of substances need to be bagged in gauze?

1) herbs with cilia (fine, hair-like structures)
2) small seeds
3) some minerals
4) powderd substances

38

What type of substances are decocted separately?

rare and expensive substances like Ren Shen

39

What type of substances are dissolved in a strained decoction?

highly viscous or sticky substances because they would stick to the pot or other herbs and reduce the effect of decocting

40

What type of substances are taken with a strained decoction?

some expensive, aromatic substances are grounded into a powder and taken first, followed by the strained decoction

this is also the case with precious horns, which are shaved or filed into a powder and ingested, followed by the decoction

41

What are Boiled Powders or Drafts?

powders decocted for 10 minutes

dosage is much smaller than decoctions

42

How are Pills made?

by combining the fine powder of pulverized herbs with a viscous medium

43

Pills are usually ________ and ________ in action

milder and slower

44

What can pills be prepared with and what are they good for?

1) water - good solvent
2) honey - dissolves slowly and good for Tonic pills
3) wax - dissolves slowly, usually in intestines (instead of the ST) and prevents gastric irritation

45

Why are Powders used?

easily absorbed and easy to store

46

The medicinal action of Powders are between ________ and __________.

decoction, pill

47

What are Dan?

vermillion pills - finely processed expensive substances or minerals

48

What are syrups good to treat?

sore throats and coughs

49

What are Plasters used to treat?

dermatological issues, painful joints & muscles, fractures & sprains, and fixed masses

50

What are the functions of medicinal wines and what are they used to treat?

nourishing, blood invigorating, and unblocking channels

used to treat Wind-Damp painful obstruction, traumatic injury, and deficiency induced disorders

51

What are the 2 types of Herb/Drug interaction to be cautious about?

Pharmacokinetic Interaction: can change the absorption, distribution, metabolism or elimination

Pharmacodynamic Reaction: can alter the way in which a drug or herb effects a tissue or organ system. Hard to predict. Can be synergistic or antagonistic

52

What are the general guidelines to reduce the possibility of Herb/Drug interaction?

- keep a record of all drugs patient is taking
- take a drug & herb at different times or via different methods
- reduce dosage of herbs that may have same therapeutic effects as drugs (e.g. diuretics)
- adjust when Intestinal Motility drugs are used (i.e. laxatives will move through faster, decreasing absorption, so increase herb dosage)

53

When do you use EXTREME CAUTION?

1) with patients scheduled for surgery
2) with patients with LV or KD disease
3) with multiple-drug users, especially elderly