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Jonathan's Metabolism > Minerals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Minerals Deck (29):
1

Which step in muscular contraction is Ca-dependent

when myosin head attaches to actin filament, causing release of phosphate

2

when does malignant hyperthermia occur?

when muscles release excess Ca

3

What is the drug treatment of malignant hyperthermia

dantrolene

4

What are the toxicity symptoms of Ca overdose

constipation
kidney stones
interference with absorption of other minerals

5

What are the functions of phosphorus

most kinase use phosphorus
component of DNA, RNA, ATP
fertiliser

6

What are the four ways of getting phosphorus deficiency?

malnutrition
failure to absorb
excess excretion
re-feeding after malnutrition

7

From which macronutrient can sulphur be derived from?

amino acids methionine and cysteine

8

T/F hair contains a lot of sulphur

True, the disulphide bonds between filaments of keratin lock the curl into hair

9

What's the role of chloride in the body?

it is a counter ion, providing fluid balance
part of hydrochloric acid

10

What's the role of magnesium in the body

bone mineralisation
involved in enzyme systems
muscle contraction, nerve impulses, immune system

11

What is a good source of magnesium?

dark green vegetable

12

What is epsom salt?

it's MgSO4, and a quick laxative

13

Is magnesium supplement useful?

Yes, it is useful in relieving muscle cramps

14

What is pica?

the urge to eat dirt (esp in children lacking iron)

15

What's the most important condition of iron deficiency?

microcystic anaemia

16

Why should iron supplement be formulated with vitamin C

Vit C revert Iron 3+ to 2+. Body can only use 2+

17

How does hereditary hemochrmatosis occur?

genetic lack of iron carrying and storing proteins

18

What is the function of zinc?

part of enzymes like insulin
making proteins and genetic material
immune reaction
normal development of foetus

19

What is the best source of zinc

oysters

20

What is the function of copper?

it's the final electron receptor
absorption of iron + formation of haemoglobin

21

What kind of anaemia do you get with copper deficiency?

microcytic, because of impaired iron absorption

22

What's Menke's disease?

mutation of ATP7A, so iron can be stored but not released, leading to copper deficiency

23

What's Wilson's disease?

high serum copper + copper toxicity from overactive ATP7A

24

What's the classic symptom of Wilson's disease?

coloured ring around the cornea

25

What's the function of manganese?

plants - splits water to free oxygen for photosynthesis

human - cofactor for several enzymes + bone formation

26

what's the primary function of selenium?

anti-oxidant + thyroid hormone formation (with iodine)

27

What is the function of chromium?

enhances insulin action

28

What is the function of molybdenum

cofactor for enzymes

29

What is the function of fluoride?

maintains health of bones and teeth