Type I Diabetes Management Flashcards Preview

Jonathan's Metabolism > Type I Diabetes Management > Flashcards

Flashcards in Type I Diabetes Management Deck (20):
1

How does diabetes lead to glucose in the blood and muscle wasting?

lack of insulin = lack of cellular glucose uptake

Cellular starvation leads to proteolysis and muscle wasting. Excess circulating glucose leads to glucose in urine

2

T/F Type I diabetes is an absolute lack of insulin

True, whereas type II is a relative deficiency

3

Is type I diabetes a slowly progressing disease

Yes, because you need to lose quite a bit of beta cells to get symptoms

4

What are some examples of long acting insulin? Which one is the most used?

isophane insulin
Glargine (Lantus), most used
Detemir

5

Some short acting insulin drugs are modified. What's the modification?

modified to make quicker action - how fast it is absorbed from subcutaneous deposition (not the cellular effect)

6

What are some general structural modifications of insulin

adding or deleting amino acids
adding fatty acids (Detemir)

7

What is a typical regime of insulin injection? (how is insulin administered)

one long acting insulin at bed time
one short acting insulin before each meal

8

What is the advantage of using insulin pumps?

provides a background rate of insulin, so long acting insulin is not needed

Patient has control of insulin injected

9

What is the advantage of artificial pancreas

Adds sensor of glucose, hence preventing hypoglycaemia at night

10

What are the major issues with pancreas transplantation for diabetes

availability of tissue
life-long immunosuppression leading to increased risk of cancer

11

Which three tissues are particularly endangered with hyperglycaemia

retina
kidney
nerves

12

T/F diabetes is the most common cause of blindness and nephritis

True

13

What are some complications of neuropathy from diabetes?

numbness of feet + amputation
autonomic neuropathy - problem controlling blood pressure

14

Why is it important to measure blood glucose while being put on insulin?

so we can check the effectiveness of the dose given

15

In what circumstance do we measure fructosamine for diabetes

When the patients have high red cell turnover and artificially low HbA1C

16

Why do we check for urinary microalbumin

Check for renal function

17

What are the symptoms of rapid glucose decline?

trigger SNS causing tachycardia, anxiety, tremor. Can also trigger silent angina due to racing heart rate

18

What are the symptoms of absolute low glucose level?

brain malfunction, paralysis, coma, death

19

T/F glucagon is the only factor influencing glucose liberation

False, there is some cross interaction with growth hormone and adrenoceptor blockers

20

How does insulin affect K+ level?

Insulin helps to pump K+ into the cells. Low insulin will lead to hyperkalemia