Flashcards in Vitamins Deck (36):
List the four fat soluble vitamins
A, D, E, and K
What is the biological role of thiamin?
coenzyme in decarboxylation from pyruvate to acetyl CoA
Which food should we eat to get thiamin?
vegemite, wholemeal bread
How quickly will we run out of thiamin? What happens if we run out?
2 weeks, and we will get neural deficiency (beriberi)
What are the symptoms of Beriberi syndrome?
extreme weakness, paralysis, anemia, wasting
What is wet beriberi?
low serum albumin resulting in oedema
What is the biological role of riboflavin (B2)
electron carrier (FAD, FMN)
what are the sources of B2
vegemite, milk/cheese, fortified cereal
What's the more common cause of B2 deficiency?
Symptoms are sore tongue and its magenta appearance
What is the biological role of Niacin (B3)
coenzyme, electron carrier (NADH, NADPH)
What is the source of B3
vegemite, wheat bran
What are the causes of B3 deficiency?
Pellagra (corn-rich diet)
What are the 4 symptoms of Pellagra?
dermatitis, diarrhoea, dementia, death
What is the biological role of pyridoxine
amino acid metabolism
What are the sources of B6?
vegemite, nuts, bananas, fortified cereal
What is the biological role of biotin?
What are the sources of biotin?
cooked egg yolk
Why do people get biotin deficiency when eating raw eggs
protein avidin binds strongly to biotin to antagonise its action, but avidin is killed with heat
What is the biological role of folate
What are the sources of folate
What is the result of folate deficiency?
macrocytic anaemia, spina bifida, glossitis
Vitamin B12 has a role in transalkylation. Which tissue requires this reaction?
blood and nerves
What are the sources of B12
meat, egg yolks, cheese
What are the symptoms of B12 deficiency?
neurological disorders and pernicious anaemia
What is the biological role of Vitamin C
cofactor for collagen synthesis (hydroxylating prolines)
How does scurvy cause death
in vitamin C deficiency, arteries lack collagen and can result in micro haemorrhages. Patients can die from internal haemorrhages
What is vitamin A derived from?
T/F You get overdose of vitamin A by having too much carotene
False, body only cleaves to make enough vitamin A
what's vitamin D derived from?
cholesterol, and requires UV light for synthesis
What is the function of vitamin D?
Ca regulation and bone growth
What are the conditions due to vitamin D deficiency
kids - rickets
adults - osteomalacia
how much calcium is excreted from the kidneys everyday?
What's the function of vitamin E
antioxidant, linked to inflammation and cell division
Which food has high level of vitamin E
What is the function of vitamin K
coagulation cascade, activate thrombin