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Flashcards in MIX Deck (313):
1

Von Gierke Disease (type I) mutated enzyme

glucose-6-phosphatatse

2

Pompe disease (type II) mutated enzyme

lysosomal alpha-1,4-glucosidase

3

Cori Disease (type III) mutated enzyme

debranching enzyme (alpha-1,6-glucosidase)

4

McArdle disease (type V) mutated enzyme

skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase

5

Fabry disease mutated enzyme

alpha-galactosidease

6

Gaucher disease mutated enzyme

glucocerebrosidase

7

Niemann-Pick mutated enzyme

sphingomyelinase

8

Tay-Sachs mutated enzyme

hexosaminidase A

9

Krabbe disease mutated enzyme

galactrocerebrosidase

10

metachromic leukodystrophy mutated enzyme

arylsulfatase A

11

Hurler syndrome mutated enzyme

alpha-L-iduronidase

12

Hunter syndrome mutated enzyme

iduronate sulfatase

13

_1 (alpha1) receptor action

increase vascular smooth muscle contraction, increase pupillary dilator muscle contraction (mydriasis), increase intestinal and bladder sphincter muscle contraction

14

_2 (alpha2)receptor action

decrease sympathetic outflow, decrease insulin reslease, decrease lipolysis, increase platelet aggregation, decrease aqueous humor production

15

_1 (beta1) receptor action

increase heart rate, increase contractility, increase renin release, increase lipolysis

16

_2 (beta2) receptor action

vasodilation, bronchodilation, increase lipolysis, increase insulin release, decrease uterine tone (tocolysis), ciliary muscle relaxation, increase aqueous humor production

17

M1 receptor action

CNS, enteric nervous system

18

M2 receptor action

decrease heart rate and contractility of atria

19

M3 receptor action

increase exocrine gland secretions (lacrimal, salivary, gastric acid), increase peristalsis of gut, increase bladder contraction, bronchoconstriction, increase pupillary sphincter muscle contraction (miosis), ciliary muscle contraction (accomodation)

20

D1 receptor action

relaxes renal vascular smooth muscle

21

D2 receptor action

modulates transmitter release, especially in the brain

22

H1 receptor action

increases nasal and bronchial mucus production, increase vascular permeability, contraction of bronchioles, pruritus, pain

23

H2 receptor action

increase gastric acid secretion

24

V1 receptor action

increase vascular smooth muscle contraction

25

V2 receptor action

increased H2O permeability and reabsorption in collecting tubules of the kidney

26

bethanechol use

post-op ileus, neurogenic ileus, urinary retention

27

carbachol use

constricts pupil, relieves intraocular pressure in glaucomoa

28

methacholine use

challenge test for asthma dx

29

pilocarpine use

open angle and closed angle glaucoma

30

donepezil use

alzheimer disease

31

galantamine use

alzheimer disease

32

rivastigmine use

alzheimer disease

33

edrophonium use

historically used to diagnose myasthenia gravis

34

neostigmine use

post-op ileus, neurogenic ileus, urinary retention, myasthenia gravis, reversal of neuromuscular junction blockade post-op

35

physostigmine use

used to treat anticholinergic toxicity (ie atropine tox, TCA od); is able to cross BBB

36

pyridostigmine use

myasthenia gravis

37

atropine use

eye: mydriasis (pupillary dilation), hard to seeairway: decreased secretionsstomach: decreased acid secretiongut: decreased motilitybladder: decreased urgency

38

homatropine use

eye: mydriasis (pupillary dilation), hard to see

39

tropicamide use

eye: mydriasis (pupillary dilation), hard to see

40

benztropine use

Parkinson disease; acute dystonia

41

glycopyrrolate use

GI (oral administration): drooling, peptic ulcerrespiratory (parenteral administration): pre-op to reduce secretions

42

hyoscyamine use

GI: antispasmotic for IBS

43

dicyclomine use

GI: antispasmotic for IBS

44

ipatropium use

respiratory: COPD, asthma

45

tiopropium use

respiratory: COPD, asthma

46

oxybutynin use

GU: reduce bladder spasm and urge incontinence (overactive bladder)

47

solifenacin use

GU: reduce bladder spasm and urge incontinence (overactive bladder)

48

tolterodine use

GU: reduce bladder spasm and urge incontinence (overactive bladder)

49

scopalamine use

CNS: motion sickness

50

tetrodotoxin symptoms

nausea, vomiting, paresthesias, weakness, dizziness, loss of reflexes after eating poorly prepared pufferfish

51

ciguatoxin symptoms

temperature related dysesthesia (Cold feels hot)= specific finding; otherwise looks like cholinergic poisoning (diarrhea, urination, miosis, bradycardia, lacrimation, sweating salivation) after eating reef fish

52

scombroid poisoning

burning sensation in mouth, flushing of face, erythema, urticaria, pruritus, headache; anaphylaxis-like presentation

53

albuterol use

acute asthma

54

salmeterol use

long-term asthma, COPD control

55

dobutamine use

heart failure (inotropic> chronotropic), cardiac stress testing

56

dopamine use

unstable bradycardia, HF, shock; inotropic/chronotropic effects predominate at high dosese

57

epinephrine use

anaphylaxis, asthma, open-angle glaucoma (alpha effects predominate at high doses)

58

isoproterenol use

electrophysiologic evaluation of tachyarrhythmias

59

norepinephrine use

hypotension

60

phenylephrine use

hypotension (vasoconstrictor), dilates pupils, decongestant

61

amphetamine use

narcolepsy, obesity, ADHD

62

cocaine use

vasoconstriction, local anesthesia

63

ephedrine use

nasal decongestant, urinary incontinence, hypotension

64

clonidine use

hypertensive urgency, ADHD, Tourettes

65

_-methyldopa use

hypertension in pregnancy

66

phenoxybenzamine use

used pre-op before pheochromocytoma surgery to prevent catecholamine/hypertensive crisis

67

phentolamine use

for patients on MAO inhibitors who eat tyramine-containing foods

68

prazosin use

BPH urinary symptoms; PTSD; hypertension

69

terazosin use

BPH urinary symptoms; hypertension

70

doxazosin use

BPH urinary symptoms; hypertension

71

tamsulosin use

BPH urinary symptoms

72

mirtazapine use

depresson, increases appetite

73

metoprolol use

angina pectoris, MI (dec mortaility), SVT, hypertension, HF

74

esmolol use

angina pectoris, SVT, hypertension, HF

75

carvedilol use

angina pectoris, MI (dec mortaility), hypertension, HF

76

timolol use

glaucoma

77

toxin use

antidote/treatment

78

acetaminophen antidote

N-acetylcysteine

79

AchE inhibitors antidote

atropine, pralidoxime

80

organophosphates antidote

atropine, pralidoxime

81

amphetamines antidote

NH4Cl

82

antimuscarinic agents antidote

physostigmine salicylate

83

anticholinergic agents antidote

physostigmine salicylate

84

benzodiazepines antidote

flumazenil

85

beta blockers antidote

glucagon

86

carbon monoxide antidote

100% O2, hyperbaric O2

87

copper, arsenic, gold antidote

penicillamine

88

cyanide antidote

nitrite+ thiosulfate, hydroxocobalamin

89

digitalis (Digoxin) antidote

anti-dig Fab fragments

90

heparin antidote

protamine sulfate

91

iron antidote

deferoxamine, deferasirox

92

lead antidote

EDTA, dimercaprol, succimer, pencillamine

93

mercury, arsenic, gold antidote

dimercaprol (BAL), succimer

94

methanol antidote

fomepizole, ethanol

95

ethylene glycol antidote

fomepizole, ethanol

96

methemoglobin antidote

methylene blue, vitamin c

97

opioids antidote

naloxone, naltrexone

98

salicylates antidote

sodium bicarb

99

TCAs antidote

sodium bicarb

100

tPA, streptokinase, urokinase antidote

aminocaproic acid

101

warfarin antidote

FFP, vit K

102

Inspiration does what to flow to the heart

increased venous return to RA

103

Hand Grip does what to flow to the heart

increases afterload

104

valsalva (phase II)does what to flow to the heart

decreased preload

105

standing up does what to flow to the heart

decreased preload

106

rapid squatting does what to flow to the heart

increased venous return, increased preload

107

Inspiration changes heart sounds how?

increased intensity of right heart sounds

108

Hand Grip changes heart sounds how?

increased intensity of MR, AR, VSD murmursdecreased intensity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy murmur MVP: later onset of click/murmur

109

valsalva (phase II) changes heart sounds how?

decreased intensity of most murmurs (inc. AS)increased intensity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy murmurMVP: earlier onset of click/murmur

110

standing up changes heart sounds how?

decreased intensity of most murmurs (inc. AS)increased intensity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy murmurMVP: earlier onset of click/murmur

111

rapid squatting changes heart sounds how?

decreased intensity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy murmur increased intensity of AS murmurMVP: later onset of click/murmur

112

Alcohol exposure in utero

VSD, PDA, ASD, TOF

113

congenital rubella

septal defects, PDA, pulmonary artery stenosis

114

Down syndrome

AV septal defect (endocardial cushion defect), ASD, VSD

115

Infant of Diabetic Mother

Transposition of the great vessels

116

Marfan

MVP, thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection, aortic regurg

117

prenatal lithium exposure

Ebstein anomaly (tricuspid valve anomaly)

118

Turner syndrome

coarctation of the aorta, bicuspid aortic valve

119

Williams Syndrome

supravalvular aortic stenosis

120

22q11 (Di George)

truncus arteriosus, TOF

121

VSD is associated with

alcohol exposure, Down syndrome

122

PDA is associated with

alcohol exposure, Down syndrome, congenital rubella

123

TGA is associated with

infants of diabetic mother

124

truncus arteriosus is associated with

digeorge

125

coarctation of the aorta is associated with

Turner syndrome

126

TOF is associated with

alcohol exposure, DiGeorge

127

ASD is associated with

Down syndrome, alcohol exposure

128

dihydropyridines except nimodipine

act on vascular smooth musle (vs. non-dihydropyridines which act on heart)

block voltage dependent L-type calcium channels of smooth muscle--> decrease muscle contractility

129

nimodipine

(dihydropyridine)
acts on vascular smooth musle (vs. non-dihydropyridines which act on heart)

block voltage dependent L-type calcium channels of smooth muscle--> decrease muscle contractility

130

clevidipine

(dihydropyridine)
acts on vascular smooth musle (vs. non-dihydropyridines which act on heart)

block voltage dependent L-type calcium channels of smooth muscle--> decrease muscle contractility

131

verapamil

(non-dihydropyridine); class IV antiarrhythmic

acts on heart

block voltage dependent L-type calcium channels of cardiac muscle--> decrease muscle contractility

decrease conduction velocity, increase refractory period, increase PR interval

132

diltiazem

(non-dihydropyridine); class IV antiarrhythmic

acts on heart

block voltage dependent L-type calcium channels of cardiac muscle--> decrease muscle contractility

decrease conduction velocity, increase refractory period, increase PR interval

133

hydralazine

increases cGMP--> smooth muscle relaxation; vasodilation of arterioles > veins --> results in reduced afterload

134

nitroprusside

increases cGMP by directly releasing NO

135

fenoldopam

dopamine D1 receptor agonist--> coronary, peripheral, renal, splanchnic vasodilation--> decreased BP, increased natriuresis

136

nitrates (nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, isosorbide mononitrate)

increase NO in vascular smooth muscle--> increase in cGMP and smooth muscle relaxation (veins >> arteries, decreased preload)

137

lovastatin, simvastatin, etc

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors

inhibits conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate (cholesterol precursor)

DECREASES LDL, some decrease in TG, some increase in HDL

138

cholestyramine

bile acid resin

prevents intestinal reabsorption of bile acids; liver must use cholesterol to make more

decreases LDL, slight increase in HDL, slight increase in TG (not good)

139

colestipol

bile acid resin

prevents intestinal reabsorption of bile acids; liver must use cholesterol to make more

decreases LDL, slight increase in HDL, slight increase in TG (not good)

140

colesevelam

bile acid resin

prevents intestinal reabsorption of bile acids; liver must use cholesterol to make more

decreases LDL, slight increase in HDL, slight increase in TG (not good)

141

ezetimibe

prevents cholesterol absorption at the small intestine brush border

decreases LDL

142

gemifibrozil

fibrate

upregulates LPL--> increased triglyceride clearance
activates PPARalpha to induce HDL synthesis

DECREASES TGs, some decrease in LDL, some increase in HDL

143

clofibrate

fibrate

upregulates LPL--> increased triglyceride clearance
activates PPARalpha to induce HDL synthesis

DECREASES TGs, some decrease in LDL, some increase in HDL

144

benzafibrate

fibrate

upregulates LPL--> increased triglyceride clearance
activates PPARalpha to induce HDL synthesis

DECREASES TGs, some decrease in LDL, some increase in HDL

145

fenofibrate

fibrate

upregulates LPL--> increased triglyceride clearance
activates PPARalpha to induce HDL synthesis

DECREASES TGs, some decrease in LDL, some increase in HDL

146

Niacin (Vit b3)

inhibits lipolysis in adipose tissue; reduces hepatic VLDL synthesis

decreases LDL, increases HDL, slight decrease in TG

147

digoxin

cardiac glycoside

direct inhibitition of Na/K ATPase --> indirect inhibition of the Na/Ca exchanger--> increased intracellular calcium--> positive inotropy

stimulates vagus nerve--> decreased heart rate

148

quinidine

sodium channel blockers (class Ia)

slow or block conduction (especially in depolarized cells); decreases slope of phase 0 depolarization

state dependent (selectively depress tissue that is frequently depolarized-- eg tachycardia)

increase AP duration, increase effective refractory period in ventricular action, prolong QT interval

149

procainamide

sodium channel blockers (class Ia)

slow or block conduction (especially in depolarized cells); decreases slope of phase 0 depolarization

state dependent (selectively depress tissue that is frequently depolarized-- eg tachycardia)

increase AP duration, increase effective refractory period in ventricular action, prolong QT interval

150

disopyramide

sodium channel blockers (class Ia)

slow or block conduction (especially in depolarized cells); decreases slope of phase 0 depolarization

state dependent (selectively depress tissue that is frequently depolarized-- eg tachycardia)

increase AP duration, increase effective refractory period in ventricular action, prolong QT interval

151

lidocaine

sodium channel blockers (class Ib)

slow or block conduction (especially in depolarized cells); decreases slope of phase 0 depolarization

state dependent (selectively depress tissue that is frequently depolarized-- eg tachycardia)

decreases AP duration, preferentially affects ischemic or depolarized purkinje and ventricular tissue

152

mexiletine

sodium channel blockers (class Ib)

slow or block conduction (especially in depolarized cells); decreases slope of phase 0 depolarization

state dependent (selectively depress tissue that is frequently depolarized-- eg tachycardia)

decreases AP duration, preferentially affects ischemic or depolarized purkinje and ventricular tissue

153

flecainide

sodium channel blockers (class IC)

slow or block conduction (especially in depolarized cells); decreases slope of phase 0 depolarization

state dependent (selectively depress tissue that is frequently depolarized-- eg tachycardia)

significantly prolongs effective refractory period in AV node and accessory bypass tracts; no effect in Purkinje or ventricular tissue; minimal effect on AP duration

154

propafenone

sodium channel blockers (class IC)

slow or block conduction (especially in depolarized cells); decreases slope of phase 0 depolarization

state dependent (selectively depress tissue that is frequently depolarized-- eg tachycardia)

significantly prolongs effective refractory period in AV node and accessory bypass tracts; no effect in Purkinje or ventricular tissue; minimal effect on AP duration

155

metoprolol

beta blockers (class II)

decrease SA and AV nodal activity by decreasing cAMP and decreasing calcium currents; suppress abnormal pacemakers by decreasing the slope of phase 4

AV node particularly sensitive; increases PR interval

156

propanolol

beta blockers (class II)

decrease SA and AV nodal activity by decreasing cAMP and decreasing calcium currents; suppress abnormal pacemakers by decreasing the slope of phase 4

AV node particularly sensitive; increases PR interval

157

esmolol

beta blockers (class II)

decrease SA and AV nodal activity by decreasing cAMP and decreasing calcium currents; suppress abnormal pacemakers by decreasing the slope of phase 4

AV node particularly sensitive; increases PR interval

VERY SHORT ACTING

158

atenolol

beta blockers (class II)

decrease SA and AV nodal activity by decreasing cAMP and decreasing calcium currents; suppress abnormal pacemakers by decreasing the slope of phase 4

AV node particularly sensitive; increases PR interval

159

timolol

beta blockers (class II)

decrease SA and AV nodal activity by decreasing cAMP and decreasing calcium currents; suppress abnormal pacemakers by decreasing the slope of phase 4

AV node particularly sensitive; increases PR interval

160

carvedilol

beta blockers (class II)

decrease SA and AV nodal activity by decreasing cAMP and decreasing calcium currents; suppress abnormal pacemakers by decreasing the slope of phase 4

AV node particularly sensitive; increases PR interval

161

amiodarone

potassium channel blockers (class III)

increases AP duration, increases refractory period, and increases QT interval

162

ibutilide

potassium channel blockers (class III)

increases AP duration, increases refractory period, and increases QT interval

163

dofetilide

potassium channel blockers (class III)

increases AP duration, increases refractory period, and increases QT interval

164

sotalol

potassium channel blockers (class III)

increases AP duration, increases refractory period, and increases QT interval

165

adenosine

increased K+ efflux from cells--> hyperpolarizes cell--> decreases calcium influx

166

dihydropyridines except nimodipine

hypertension, angina (inc. Prinzmetal), Raynaud phenomenon

167

nimodipine

subarachnoid hemorrhage (prevents cerebral vasospasm)

168

clevidipine

hypertensive urgency or emergency

169

verapamil

hypertension, angina, atrial fibrillation/flutter

prevention of nodal arrhythmias (SVT), rate control in a fib

170

diltiazem

hypertension, angina, atrial fibrillation/flutter

prevention of nodal arrhythmias (SVT), rate control in a fib

171

hydralazine

severe, acute HTN, heart failure

safe to use in pregnancy

172

nitroprusside

hypertensive emergency

173

fenoldopam

hypertensive emergency

174

nitrates (nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, isosorbide mononitrate)

angina, acute coronary artery syndrome, pulmonary edema

175

lovastatin, simvastatin, etc

lipid lowering agent

176

cholestyramine

lipid lowering agent

177

colestipol

lipid lowering agent

178

colesevelam

lipid lowering agent

179

ezetimibe

lipid lowering agent

180

gemifibrozil

lipid lowering agent

181

clofibrate

lipid lowering agent

182

benzafibrate

lipid lowering agent

183

fenofibrate

lipid lowering agent

184

Niacin (Vit b3)

hyperlipidemia

185

digoxin

heart failure (increased contractility), a fib (decreased conduction at AV note, depression of SA node)

186

quinidine

atrial and ventricular arrhythmias; reentrant and ectopic SVT and VT

187

procainamide

atrial and ventricular arrhythmias; reentrant and ectopic SVT and VT

188

disopyramide

atrial and ventricular arrhythmias; reentrant and ectopic SVT and VT

189

lidocaine

acute ventricular arrhythmias (especially post-MI), digitalis-induced arrhythmias

190

mexiletine

acute ventricular arrhythmias (especially post-MI), digitalis-induced arrhythmias

191

flecainide

SVT (inc. a fib)

192

propafenone

SVT (inc. a fib)

193

metoprolol

SVT, ventricular rate control for afib and aflutter

194

propanolol

SVT, ventricular rate control for afib and aflutter

195

esmolol

SVT, ventricular rate control for afib and aflutter

196

atenolol

SVT, ventricular rate control for afib and aflutter

197

timolol

SVT, ventricular rate control for afib and aflutter

198

carvedilol

SVT, ventricular rate control for afib and aflutter

199

amiodarone

a fib, a flutter, ventricular tachycardia

200

ibutilide

a fib, a flutter

201

dofetilide

a fib, a flutter

202

sotalol

a fib, a flutter, ventricular tachycardia

203

adenosine

diagnosis and stopping SVT

very short acting

204

magnesium

torsades de points and digoxin toxicity

205

with which conditions do you have a failure to agglutinate with ristocetin assay?

vWD and Bernard-Soulier syndrome

206

t(8;14)

Burkitt Lymphoma

207

t(9;22)

CML

208

t(11;14)

mantle cell lymphoma

209

t(14;18)

follicular lymphoma

210

t(15;17)

M3 type of AML

211

Medication

Effect on fetus

212

ACE inhibitors

renal damage

213

alkylating agents

absence of digits, multiple anomalies

214

aminoglycosides

CN VIII toxicity (deafness)

215

carbamazepine

facial dysmorphism, developmental delay, neural tube defects, phalanx/fingernail hypoplasia

216

Diethylstilbestrol (DES)

vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma, congenital mullerian anomalies

217

folate antagonists

neural tube defects

218

isoretinoin

multiple birth defects

219

lithium

ebstein anomaly (atrialized RV)

220

methimazole

aplasia cutis congenita

221

phenytoin

fetal hydantoin syndrome- cleft palate, cardiac defects, phalanx/fingernail hypoplasia

222

tetracyclines

discolored teeth

223

thalidomide

limb defects (flipper limbs)

224

valproate

inhibition of maternal folate absorption (--> neural tube defects)

225

warfarin

bone deformities, fetal hemorrhage, abortion, ophthalmologic abnormalities

226

alcohol

FAS

227

cocaine

abnormal fetal growth, fetal addiction, placental abruption

228

smoking

low birth weight, preterm labor, placental problems, IUGR, ADHD

229

iodine (lack or excess)

congenital goiter or hypothyroidism

230

maternal diabetes

caudal regression syndrome, congenital heart defects, neural tube defects

231

vitamin A excess

high risk for SAB and birth defects

232

x-rays

microcephaly, intellectual disability

233

vagina

stratified squamous epithelium, non-keratinized

234

ectocervix

stratified squamous epithelium, non-keratinized

235

transformation zone

squamocolumnar junction (MC area for cervical cancer)

236

endocervix

simple columnar epithelium

237

uterus

simple pseudostratified columnar epithelium; long tubular glands in follicular phase and coiled glands in the luteal phase

238

fallopian tube

simple columnar epithelium, ciliated; peg cells secrete nutrients

239

ovary outer surface

simple cuboidal epithelium (aka germinal epithelium)

240

demeclocycline

ADH antagonist

241

somatostatin (octreotide)

basically stops the secretion of a bunch of hormones; reduces acid secretion from parietal cells, suppresses release of gastrin and CCK, inhibits release of glucagon

242

canagliflozin (SGLT-2 inhibitor)

block reabsorption of glucose in the proximal collecting tubule

243

conivaptan, tolvaptan (ADH antagonist)

blocks action of ADH at the V2 receptor

244

methimazole

blocks thyroid peroxidase--> inhibits oxidation of iodide and coupling of iodine--> inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis

245

propylthiouracil

blocks thyroid peroxidase--> inhibits oxidation of iodide and coupling of iodine--> inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis

also blocks 5'-deiodase which decreases peripheral conversion of T4 to T3

246

chlorpropamide (1st gen sulfonylurea)

closes K+ channel in the beta cell--> cell depolarization--> calcium influx--> insulin release

247

tolbutamide (1st gen sulfonylurea)

closes K+ channel in the beta cell--> cell depolarization--> calcium influx--> insulin release

248

glimepiride (2nd gen sulfoylurea)

closes K+ channel in the beta cell--> cell depolarization--> calcium influx--> insulin release

249

glipizide (2nd gen sulfoylurea)

closes K+ channel in the beta cell--> cell depolarization--> calcium influx--> insulin release

250

glyburide (2nd gen sulfoylurea)

closes K+ channel in the beta cell--> cell depolarization--> calcium influx--> insulin release

251

pramlintide (amylin analogs)

decreased gastric emptying, decreased glucagon

252

Metformin (biguanide)

decreases gluconeogenesis, increases glycolysis, increases peripheral glucose uptake (increases insulin sensitivity)

253

pioglitazone, rosiglitazone (glitazones, thiazolidinediones)

increased insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue (via binding to PPAR-y which regulates fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism)

254

exenatide (GLP-1 analog)

increases insulin release and decreases glucagon release

255

liraglutide (GLP-1 analog)

increases insulin release and decreases glucagon release

256

linagliptin (DPP-4 inhibitor)

increases insulin release and decreases glucagon release

257

saxagliptin (DPP-4 inhibitor)

increases insulin release and decreases glucagon release

258

sitagliptin (DPP-4 inhibitor)

increases insulin release and decreases glucagon release

259

acarbose (alpha-glucosidase inhibitor)

inhibits intestinal bursh border alpha-glucosidases (which normally breaks down starches into glucose)--> delayed carbohydrate hydrolysis and glucose absorption--> decreased postprandial hyperglycemia

260

glucocorticoids

interactions with glucocorticoid response elements, inhibition of phospholipase A2, inhibition of transcription factors such as NF-KB

261

cinacalcet

sensitizes calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in parathyroid gland to circulating calcium--> decreased PTH release

262

Microcytic Anemias

Iron deficiency, anemia of chronic disease, thalassemias, lead poisoning, sideroblastic anemia

263

normocytic, non-hemolytic anemia (nml to low retic count)

anemia of chronic disease, aplastic anemia, chronic kidney disease, early iron deficiency anemia, pure red cell aplasia

264

normocytic, hemolytic anemia (increased retic count)- INTRINSIC

hereditary spherocytosis, G6PD deficiency, pyruvate kinase deficiency, HbC defect, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, sickle cell anemia

265

normocytic, hemolytic anemia (increased retic count)- EXTRINSIC

autoimmune, microangiopathic, macroangiopathic, infections

266

macrocytic, megaloblastic

folate deficiency, B12 deficiency, orotic aciduria

267

macrocytic, non-megaloblastic

liver disease, alcoholism, reticulocytosis

268

RBC casts are seen in which 2 conditions?

glomerulonephritis, malignant hypertension

269

WBC cast are seen in which 3 conditions?

tubulointerstitial inflammation, acute pyelonephritis, transplant rejection

270

fatty casts (oval fat bodies) are seen in which condition?

nephrotic syndrome

271

granular (muddy brown) casts are seen in which condition?

acute tubular necrosis

272

waxy casts are seen in which condition?

end-stage renal disease/ chronich renal failure

273

hyaline casts are seen in which condition?

nonspecific, can be normal finding, often seen in concentrated urine samples

274

what casts are found in glomerulonephritis?

RBC casts

275

what casts are found in malignant hypertension?

RBC casts

276

what casts are found in tubulointerstitial inflammation?

WBC casts

277

what casts are found in acute pyelonephritis?

WBC casts

278

what casts are found in transplant rejection?

WBC casts

279

what casts are found in nephrotic syndrome?

fatty casts

280

what casts are found in acute tubular necrosis?

granular, muddy brown casts

281

what casts are found in ESRD?

waxy casts

282

arginine

nitric oxide

283

arginine+ aspartate

urea

284

glycine+ succinyl coa

heme

285

glycine + arginine + sam

creatinine

286

glutamate

gaba

287

gluatmate

glutathione

288

glutamate + aspartate

pyrimidines

289

glutamate + aspartate + glycine

pryimidines

290

histidine

histamine

291

phenylalanine

tyrosine (-->DOPA--> DOPAMINE)

292

tryptophan

serotonin (--> melatonin)

293

tryptophan

niacin

294

tyrosine

thyroxine, melanin

295

acanthocyte (spur cell)

liver disease, abetalipoproteinemia

296

basophilic stippling

lead disease

297

degmacyte (bite cell)

G6PD deficiency

298

elliptocyte

heretidary elliptocytosis

299

macro-ovalocyte

megaloblastic anemia

300

ringed sideroblast

sideroblastic anemia (excess iron in mitochondria=pathologic)

301

shistocyte (helmet cell)

DIC, TTP/HUS, HELLP, mechanical hemolysis

302

sickle cell

sickle cell anemia

303

spherocyte

hereditary spherocytosis, drug and infection induced hemolytic anemia

304

dacrocyte (teardrop cell)

bone marrow infiltration (myelofibrosis)

305

target cell

HbC disease, asplenia, liver disease, thalassemia (HALT)

306

heinz bodies

preciptiation of Hb--> leads to bite cells; see in G6PD deficiency and also alpha thalassemia

307

Howell-Jolly bodies

basophilic nuclear remnants unable to be cleared by spenic macrophages; seen in functional asplenia or asplenia

308

S-100 is a marker for?

melanoma, langerhans cell histiocytosis (mesodermal origin)

309

What causes methemoglobin

nitrates, benzocaine

310

psammoma bodies?

mesothelioma, ovarian serous cystadenocarcinomas, meningiomas, papillary thyroid carcinoma

311

what cases methemoglobin?

nitrites, benzocaine

312

what kind of shift does carboxyhemoglobin cause?

LEFT SHIFT! (decreased O2 binding capacity)

313

what is caplan syndrome

pneumoconiosis w/ intrapulmonary nodules and RA