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Flashcards in vitamins Deck (14):
1

vitamin A (retinol)

makes up retinal (visual pigments), essential for normal differentiation of epithelial cells into specialized tissue; treats measles and AML subtype M3

2

Vitamin B1 (thiamine)

cofactor for many dehydrogenase enzyme reactions (alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, transketolase, pyruvate dehydrogenase)

3

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

in flavins FAD and FMN (cofactors in redox reactions)

4

Vitamin B3 (niacin)

constituent of NAD+, NADP+ (redox reactions); derived from tryptophan (synthesis of B3 requires B2 and B6); tx dyslipidemia because it lowers VLDL and raises HDL

5

Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)

essential component of coenzyme A and fatty acid synthase

coenzyme A: synthesis of vit A, vit D, cholesterol, steroids, heme A, fatty acids, amino acids, proteins

6

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

converted to pyridoxal phosphate (cofactor used in transamination, decarboxylation, glycogen phosphorylase); involved in synthesis of cystathionine, heme, niacin, histamine, neurotransmitters (serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, GABA)

7

Vitamin B7 (biotin)

cofactor for carboxylation enzymes

8

Vitamin B9 (folate)

converted to tetrahydrofolic acid (co-enzyme for 1-carbon transfer/methylation reactions); important for synthesis of nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA

9

vitamin B12 (cobalamin)

cofactor for homocysteine methyltransferase (transfers CH3 groups as methylcobalamin) and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase

10

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

antioxidant; facilitates iron absorption by reducing it to Fe2+; hydroxylates proline and lysinine in collagen synthesis; necessary for dopamine beta-hydroxylase (converts dopa to NE)

11

vitamin D

increase intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate, increases bone mineralization

12

vitamin E

antioxidant; protects RBCs and membranes from free radical damage

13

vitamin K

cofactor for gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues on various proteins required for blood clotting; synthesized by intestinal flora

14

zinc

mineral essential for the activity of 100+ enzmes; important in the formation of zinc fingers