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Flashcards in resistance mech Deck (16):
1

sulfonamides

altered enzyme, decreased uptake, increased PABA synthesis

2

vancomycin

bacteria amino acid modification (D-ala D-ala TO D-ala D-lac)

3

aminoglycosites (gentamicin, neomycin, amikacin, tobramycin, streptomycin)

bacterial transferase enzymes inactive the drug (either by acetylation, phosphorylation, or adenylation)

4

piperacillin, ticarcillin

beta-lactamases; use with a beta-lactamase inhibitor

5

fluoroquinolones (cipro, levofloxacin)

chromosome-encoded mutation in DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II), plasmid mediated resistance, efflux pumps

6

tetracyclines (tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline)

decreased uptake or increased efflux out of bacterial cells by plasmid-encoded transport pumps

7

macrolides (azithro, clarithro, erythro)

methylation of 23S rRNA-binding site

8

dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin

MRSA resistance: altered penicillin-binding protein target site

9

penicillin G,V

penicillinase (beta-lactamase) cleaves beta-lactam ring

10

amoxicillin, ampicillin

penicillinase (beta-lactamase) cleaves beta-lactam ring

11

chloramphenicol

plasmid-encoded acetyltransferase inactivates

12

1st gen cephalosporin (cefazolin, cephalexin)

structural change in penicillin-binding-proteins/transpeptidases

13

2nd gen cephalosporin (cefoxitin, cefaclor, cefuroxime)

structural change in penicillin-binding-proteins/transpeptidases

14

3rd gen cephalosporin (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime)

structural change in penicillin-binding-proteins/transpeptidases

15

4th gen cephalosporin (cefepime)

structural change in penicillin-binding-proteins/transpeptidases

16

5th gen cephalosporin (ceftaroline)

structural change in penicillin-binding-proteins/transpeptidases