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Flashcards in MOD Deck (186)
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120

How does the cns 'regenerate'

Origional tissue not restored but plasticity allows for new pathways to form.

121

Why might the cns not regenerate?

It may disrupt memory formation

122

Give examples of physiological and pathological hyperplasia

Physiological - endometrial proliferation,
Pathological - goitre, eczema

123

Give some physiological and pathological examples of hypertrophy

Phys - muscle bulk
Pth - cardiac hypertrophy, prostatic hypertrophy

124

At what point does atrophy become irreversable?

When a large number of functional cells are lost

125

Give some examples of atrophy

Denervation atrophy
Thin skin in pvd

126

How does metaplasia occur.

One differentiated cell type replaced from stem cells by another of the same germ layer

127

What is a neoplasm?

An abnormal growth of cells that persists after the initial stimulus is removed

128

What is a malignant neoplasm?

A neoplasm that invades surrounding tissues and has the potential to spread to distant sites

129

What is a tumour?

A clinically detectable lump or swelling

130

What is cancer?

A malignant neoplasm

131

What is dysplasia?

Disordered but reversible cell organisation. Pre neoplastic

132

How do benign neoplasms appear macroscopically?

A growing mass with a smooth capsule of compressed tissues
Slow growing

133

What are macroscopic features of malignant neoplasm?

Infiltration of surrounding tissues, irregular outer margin, ulceration, necrosis

134

What are microscopic features of benign and malignant neoplasms?

Progression from highly differentiated cells to poorly differentiated. More likely to be malignant if poorly differentiated.

135

What cellular cells can be seen in malignant neoplasms?

Nuclear hyperchromaisa
Increased nucleus size
Mitotic figures
Pleomorphism (variation in cell size and shape)

136

When are cellular changes very important in malignacy diagnosis?

On a needle biopsy.

137

What makes the majority of ca. Risk? Interinsic or extrinsic factors?

85% extrinsic

138

What is the initiator promotor model of cancer?

Initiators are mutagens that result in a primary mutation. Promotors then cause replication of the cell creating many monoclonal copies.

139

What is the evidence that neoplasms are monoclonal?

In a female (xx) look at 2 isoenzymes for g6p dehydroginase (x linked) some cells produce one, some the other. Stain. All neoplasms create just one isoenzyme.

140

What are malignant epilthilial neoplasms called?


-carcinoma

141

What are malignant mesenchymal neoplasms called?

-sarcoma

142

What is a leukemia?

A malignacy of blood forming bone marrow

143

What is a malignancy of lymph nodes?

Lymphoma

144

What is a germ cell neoplasm?

A malignancy of pluripotent cells

145

What is a blastoma?

A neoplasm of imature precusor cells

146

What is a tumour of smooth muscle?

Leiomy -oma/sarcoma

147

What is a glioma?

A benign tumour of glial cells

148

What is a malignant neoplasm of glial cells?

Malignant glioma

149

What are the three steps to metastasis?

Grow at primary site
Enter transport systems and lodge at secondary site
Grow at secondary site