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Why is collaboration with a broad range of actors important when tackling wicked problems? 4 points.

1) Any single perspective can only offer a partial view of the system.
2) Wicked problems cannot be separated from issues of values, equity and social justice and must therefore be negotiated. There is no right or wrong answer.
3) Multiple perspectives can help achieve greater clarity by overcoming certain social and cultural biases.
4) Learning together or developing “collective smartness” can help groups to better tackle the next wicked problem that they will face.

Everyone hold their own knowledge which can improve the quality of info and knowledge to manage CAS.


To understand how a complex system operates, we must. 3 points.

1) know what the most important components are and how they interact.
2) embrace the idea of non-linearity.
3) listen to interpretations from different viewpoints and academic disciplines.


Which of the following are widely accepted principles for addressing wicked problems? 3 points.

1) Trust amongst stakeholders.
2) Recognition of cross-scale interactions and collaborations.
3) The importance of planning and managing for resilience.


What is a complex adaptive system?

A system characterized by cross-scale interactions between components, path-dependency, feedback loops, and emergent properties.


Why is adaptive management important for managing complex adaptive systems and addressing wicked problems?

Because it allows managers and stakeholders to experiment with various scenarios when there is no obvious solution to the problem.


What is a wicked problem?

1) A problem that has no simple solution.
2) A problem involving interactions at various scales.
3) A problem involving issues across disciplines.


How can the complexity of a system be measured?

The more nodes (or components) there are in a system, the more complex it is.


Resilience is:

system capacity to absorb disturbance while maintaining fundamental structure, function, identity, and feedbacks.


What is the reductionist approach?

break the system down to its pieces to reason about it from the properties of these pieces.


What is the holistic approach?

Thinking about the big picture. Views humans and the environment as a single system.


What is a closed system?

Do not interact with their environment.


What is and open system?

Have an exchange of energy and resources between the system and its environment.


What is in input?

The passing of energy or resources from the exterior of the systems boundary to the interior. the opposite in and output.


What is a positive feedback?

Produces more of the same. ex: glaciers


What is a negative feedback?

A form of self-regulation that generates very stable systems. ex: supply and demand.


What is path dependency?

Refers to the fact that local rules of interaction change as the system evolves and develops.
The history of human decisions will affect the decisions that are made today.


What is a regime shift?

Sudden shifts in ecosystem, whereby a threshold is passed and the core functions, structure and processes of the new regime are different form the previous regime.


What is adaptive management?

-A process for continually adjusting policies and practices by learning from the outcomes of the previous ones.
-Each action is viewed as a scientific experiment.
-Action first, science later.


What are the 4 steps to adaptive management?

1) Planning
2) Implementation
3) Monitoring
4) Interpretation