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What part of the adaptive cycle contributes to renewal and novelty in ecosystems?

From release (Ω) to reorganization (α).


All ecological systems in the world follow the pattern of the adaptive cycle. T or F



What bests describes an ecosystem?

A dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit.


What does the term "ecosystem services" mean?

Ecosystem services are the benefits that all humans obtain from ecosystems, including oxygen, drinking water, food, protection from wave action and storms, places to perform recreational activities, and so on.


Identify the feedback loop in the process of lake eutrophication?

Increased nutrient input -> Increased primary productivity -> Increased decomposition -> Oxygen depletion -> Fewer consumers (invertebrates and fish) -> Increased primary productivity and so on


According to Niklas Hagelberg from the UNEP, which ones of the following are the four key components of the ecosystem approach? Select the 4.

1) It must take into consideration the characteristics of the ecosystem itself.
2) It involves certain processes of negotiation, trade-offs, and seeking the best outcomes.
3) It is results based, and those results must be measurable.
4) It is based on the objectives and demands that stakeholders living in the land/sea scape have.


In the ecosystem approach, all elements of a system must be fully analysed and understood in order for management to be effective. T or F.



What is not part of the ecosystem approach?

Seeks to keep ecosystems in a state of equilibrium.


In the MEA ecosystem services framework what are in supporting services?

1. soil formation
2. nutrient cycling
3. primary production


In the MEA ecosystem services framework what are in provisioning services?

1. food
2. fresh water
3. fuelwood
4. fiber
5. biochemicals
6. genetic resources


In the MEA ecosystem services framework what are in regulating services?

1. climate regulation
2. disease regulation
3. water regulation
4. water purification


In the MEA ecosystem services framework what are in cultural services?

1. spiritual and religious
2. recreation and ecotourism
3. aesthetic
4. inspirational
5. educational
6. sense of place
7. cultural heritage


What is the adaptive cycle?

the 4 phases of change in complex systems.
- exploitation, conservation, creative destruction, and renewal.


what is fore loops?

maximizes growth and stability.


what is back loop?

maximizes change and variety.


what is revolt?

when a smaller adaptive cycle is in its creative destruction phase, and this cascades to the next level up.


what is remember?

if the 2 levels are highly vulnerable at the same time, this increases the likelihood of a cascading effect.


what are the key components of the ecosystem approach to management?

-various stakeholders in landscape, their objectives
- processes in ecosystem approach. how can we come to the best outcomes (tradeoffs)
- we want to achieve results


What are the steps that comprise the ecosystem approach? IUCN classification of the CBD framework

1. stakeholders and area
2. ecosystem structure, function and management
3. economic issues
4. adaptive management over space
5. adaptive management over time


What are the list of services from the MEA system services?

1. security
2. basic material for a good life
3. health
4. good social relations


what are common elements of the ecosystem approach? (5)

1.use of ecosystem boundaries (biophysical or ecological boundaries)
2.emphasis on systems thinking — promoting integration across spatial and temporal scales, preferred over reductionist approaches.
3. take a cumulative view (looking at impacts over time)
4.focuses on sustainability (resilience promoted through adaptive management and governance)
5. integrates the human dimension.