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What is forest degradation?

A reduction in the ecosystem functions and services provided by the forest.


Which of the following are crucial to the success of a REDD + program? 3 answers

1. Control of the legal logging

2. Participation of local communities.

3. International support


Why is the inclusion of local stakeholders crucial to sustainable forest management? 2 answers

1. To ensure that the needs of the local stakeholders are met.

2. To ensure that local and traditional ecological knowledge is included.


What is the definition of sustainable forest management?

Forest management that provides for the social, economic, ecological, cultural, and spiritual needs of present and future generations


Adaptive co-management is...

The marriage of adaptive management and co-management


A forest is a complex adaptive system because..

Is it composed of many components that interact across scales In many different ways leading to a lack of predictability.


Why is the FAO definition of a forest relatively simple ?

The FAO Tracts global patterns in forest covers and therefore must have a definition that applies to all different kinds of forests worldwide.


Which ecosystem services are provided by forests? Many answers

1. Protection against mudslides and flooding
2. Erosion control
3. Rain
4. Clean air
5. Clean water , water regulation
6. The setting for spiritual and cultural activities
7. Food
8. Materials for construction
9. Habitat for biodiversity


Forests provide rain because of a process called..



The FAO report entitles the “major significance of minor forest products” what are they?

1. In some cultures, a tree is planted at the birth of a child. The tree and the child are linked through life in various ways.

2. In some cultures, trees represent decisions makers or mediators.

3. The forest also provides resources of social, cultural, healing ceremonies, including traditional medicines, material for production of musical instruments, and traditional foods, among other things.

4. In the African oral culture, the tree is associated with motherhood, creation, and protection against evil spirits, providing a bond between the dead and the living.


What are the long- term effects of deforestation in Haiti mentioned in the world focus report video? 3 answers

1. Soil erosion
2. Increased runoff and flooding
3. More deadly mudslides


What are the main causes of deforestation I’m Haiti? I’m

-climate change
- corruption


Effects of the deforestation project include? 2 answers

1. Reduced flooding
2. A livelihood for residents so that they have money to send their children to school


How does the Amazon Rainforest help farmers in Latin America?

It provides rain


What is the integrated landscape management approach?

Bringing together all stakeholders to ensure that the landscape can provide for human well-being and multiple ecosystem services at the same time.


Why is REDD+ working in Brazil? 3 answers

1. To qualify for loans, national banks must provide that agricultural clients are respecting forest laws ( not logging illegally)
2. There has been increased monitoring and enforcement to stop illegal logging.
3. Local indigenous communities are increasingly managing their own forests, which seem to limit deforestation and forest degradation .


Why do we not usually end up applying true adaptive management fully to social- ecological systems like forests?

Because we cannot truly experiment with social- ecological systems


Forest certification programs are run by...

Non- governmental organizations


Forest certification programs were established as a way to...

Promote environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial and economically viable forest management .


Problems with forest certification included ?
4 answers .

1. It is expensive so small companies and companies in less wealthy countries cannot afford it. The majority of certifies forests are in North America and Europe, while very few are in the fragile tropical forests ya the global south
2. Illegal logging still occurs, is difficult for certification programs to avoid, and undercuts certifies wood by providing cheap alternatives.
3. Certification programs are market driven , so if the demand for certified products disappears, they are useless.
4. There are differences in therms if transparency from one program to the other; it can be difficult to tell what RHE standards indicate.


How do forests support the material well being dimension ?

Trade in forest products
-recreation and tourism
-supports local economies and sustaining the livelihoods of over 1.6 billion people around the world


How do forests support the relational well being dimension?

Provides places for people to live and socialize


How do forests support the subjective well being dimension?

Through spirituality and in terms of individual physical and mental health.


true or false. the success of the redd+ forestry program IN bRAZIL is primarily due to a national moratorium on logging