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What is a keystone species?

-they play a crucial role in the ecosystem function.
-A species without an ecosystem experiences a regime shift flipping into an alternate stable state.


What is the number one threat to biodiversity at present?

Habitat loss


What are the 3 levels of biodiversity?

1. Genetic
2. Ecosystem
3. Species


Does the loss is species that are not keystones result in Regime shifts in biological systems?

Sometimes, especially is a number of species are lost.


Why is systems thinking necessary to understand biodiversity?

Because biodiversity is the living component of complex adaptive social-ecological systems.


Why is stakeholder, community, and Indigenous involvement important in protecting biodiversity? 3 answers

1. Local and indigenous peoples have knowledge that may be helpful to conservation and may not be available from other sources

2. Local and indigenous people have the greatest access to the biodiversity around them

3. Local and indigenous people often have the greatest interest in the conservation of the biodiversity around them, an often have enshrined rights to these resources as well.


One of the main United Nations conventions dealing with biodiversity conservation is?

The UN convention on biological diversity


There is plenty of time left to worry about conserving biodiversity. True or false?



Little brown bats are important economically because ?

One colony says over a million insect agricultural pests a year.


The greatest hope for the conservation of the little brown bats is?

That there are enough individual bats or colonies resistant to white- nose syndrome to sustain lead to the recovery of the species .


Why is it important to have a diversity of species? 2 answers

1. Species diversity contributes ecosystem services that can be monetarized.

2. Species diversity contributes to human well-being


What is a super organism?

A group of individual organisms that are independent and act together, putting the interest of the group above the interest of the individual.


How do modern agricultural practices affect bees? 3 answers

1. Since model agricultural practices tend to involve large monocrops ( vast fields of plants that all flower at the same time), they limit bee resources to the time of year when these plants are flowering. Once the crops are done flowering, the bees will starve unless physically moved by humans.

2. They result in a negative effect on bee health cause of the use of pesticides.

3. Modern agricultural practices involve using herbicides to kill off weeds, many of which provide alternate food sources to bees.


What type of keystone species was found to be crucial?



The goal of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Ecosystems is...

To protect human well-being


What are the Aichi targets ?

Adopted by the CBD as it’s Nagoya conference

It Reduces the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use.


How are we progressing in terms of meeting the Aichi targets?

Some countries are going backwards, notably many developed countries, extracting resources from or even de-listing protected areas.
- it’s unlikely most countries will meet the targets


What were the main conclusions of the 2014 WCS research paper on protected areas? 5 answers

1. Protected areas provide essential ecosystem services to local communities

2. It will soon be too late to save worlds biodoversity.

3. Protected areas work when they are well-managed.

4. Only 20% of protected areas worldwide are effecting managed due to a lack of resources

5. Protected areas are great to protect threatened species like tigers and gorillas.


What is gap species?

A species that doesn’t exist in any protected areas across the world.


What are ICDPS?

They combine conservation goals with development goals and involve the community in planning and operations .


What are homozygotes?

2 identical alleles each ( mom had 2 alleles for green eyes, dad has 2 alleles for brown.)


What is heterozygote

Child has 2 diff coloured alleles ( brown eyed alleles from dad and one green eyed from mom but brown takes over)


What is ecosystem diversity?

Refers to the number of ecosystems in an area


What is species richness?

Refers to the number of species


What is species diversity?

Individuals that can be interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring, are members of the same species


What is genetic diversity?

The variety of different genetic types or alleles in a population, species, or group of organisms living in the same area.


Why is biodiversity important?

Populations with greater genetic diversity are more likely to be able to adapt to changing conditions.


What are keystone predators

Apex. Top of chain
-lions, wolves, carnivores


What are keystone prey

Intermediate species in chain


What are keystone modifiers

Modify habitats
-beavers, alligators