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How can the ecosystem approach and systems thinking contribute to addressing the ocean and fisheries crises?

1. By broadening the scope from single-species management to multispecies relationships.
2. By taking into account multiple stressors such as nutrients from agricultural run-offs that can cause eutrophication.
3. By embracing a social-ecological perspective.
4. By including other sources of knowledge such as local or indigenous knowledge.
5. By considering interactions between various social and ecological components across scale.


Which statement best describes the oceans?

The ecosystem that provides approximately half of the oxygen we breathe.


Which of the following are compatible with an ecosystem approach to marine and coastal management and governance?

1. Marine protected areas
2. Adaptive governance
3. Integrated coastal zone mgt
4. Marine spatial planning


Ocean and coastal ecosystems are threatened by ..

1. nonpoint source pollution
2. marine debris such as microplastics from wastewater in cities.
3. overfishing, including illegal and unregulated fishing and bycatch.
4. ocean acidification, a consequence of increased carbon emissions


Which represent cross-scale interactions in marine and coastal social-ecological systems?

1. The oyster seed collapse in hatcheries in Puget Sound, USA due to ocean acidification.
2. A regime shift due to a trophic cascade created by overfishing of a specific fish stock.
3. Coral bleaching in the Galapagos Marine Reserve due to warmer surface water caused by a change in ocean currents during an El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event.


Why is fisheries governance a wicked problem?

-There are many fisheries located throughout the world (number and geographic spread).
-Fisheries governance involves many stakeholders with different interests and values.
-Fisheries interact with many other activities which increases their complexity.
-Sometimes there are no alternatives for fishing people to obtain food and/or income.
-Fisheries are diverse, dynamic and operate at different scales.
-Fisheries are part of and influenced by larger issues such as poverty, food security, community, identity, habitats, gender and human and indigenous rights.
-Fisheries can be managed to achieve various objectives that are not necessarily compatible with one another which can involve hard choices and tradeoffs (e.g. profit maximization vs local livelihoods)


What are the predicted impacts of ocean acidification?

1. Increased vulnerability of calcareous species due to the reduced availability of carbonate for their skeletons or shells.
2.Impaired sense of smell or location in species such as fish, squids and dolphins.
3.A reduction in primary production.
4.A drop in economically important fisheries such as crabs and lobsters.


What is a thermohaline current?

-temperature and salinity driven
- a deep current
-a slow current


which apply to the ocean conveyor belt?

the global circulation of thermohaline currents.


the wind is a driving force in...

surface currents and waves


what are 2 coastal ecosystems that are particularly important for peoples livelihood?

mangroves and coral reefs


what is a blue carbon ecosystem?

an ecosystem that captures and stores large amounts of CO2 in the soil.


what happens during the process of ocean acidification?

-more atmospheric CO2 is dissolved in oceans.
-there is an increase in H+ and OH-
-the equilibrium between carbonate and bicarbonate is shifted towards bicarbonate.


which statements accurately described the Bioeconomic Model in fisheries?

-the model predicts that overfishing is inevitable unless it is privatized or strongly controlled by government.
-according to this model, fishers are only motivated by the desire to maximize profit.


which statements about small-scale fisheries are true?

- local and traditional knowledge and practices can contribute to sustainability and also address a broader range of social and cultural issues.
- small-scale fishing people have rights that include the right to access marine resources.
- small-scale fisheries employ the majority of the worlds fishing people and contribute significantly to local economies and food security.
- small-scale fisheries that require lower levels of economic investments can allow people to easily move from occupation to another and thus foster social-ecological resilience.


what are the 2 distinct current systems in oceans?

1. surface circulation which stirs a thin upper layer of seas
2. deep. circulation which sweeps along the deep sea floor.


what is the gyre?

well-organized roughly circular flow.
-dominant patterns of surface circulation


what is Coriolis effect?

occurs when the earths surface rotates faster at equator than at the poles.
- it influences the paths of moving objects that are only loosely in contact with the ground, from currents, to winds, to airplanes.


what determines the location, size, shape and direction of the surface current gyres?

the complex interplay between wind, gravity, Coriolis effect and topography.


what are counter currents?

flows eastward can help trigger the unusual weather patterns called el Nino


what are Labrador currents?

colder flow, travels along westside of Greenland.
-notorious for flushing icebergs (titanic)


what are the rip currents?

where obstacles channel water away from shore line .
-many unwary swimmers have been swept away out to sea after this rip.


what are upwelling currents?

occur when winds push surface water away from the shore and deeper water rises to fill the gap.


what does the counter, Labrador, rip and upwelling currents bring?

they bring nutrients to the surface and stimulate high plant and animal productivity.


what is the conveyor belt?

slowly empties one ocean into another.
-turns the water upside down
-vast global circulation driven by thermohaline circulation.


what is the journey of conveyor belt?

1. begins on surface of sea, near the poles
2. water gets saltier (sea ice forms and salt is left behind_
3. as sea water gets colder and saltier, density increases and starts to sink
4. surface water pulled in to replace sinking water and eventually becomes cold and salty enough to sink
5. current begins
6. currents travel around edge of Antarctica
7. fresh streams of cold water sink into and recharge conveyor belt
8. 2 sections split off and turn northward :one into Indian Ocean and other into pacific.
9. both currents warm up and become less dense as they travel.
10. eventually rise back toward surface
11. drawn by the inexorable pull of the conveyor belt
12. now warm waters loop back the way they came from and eventually return to North Atlantic to begin the journey again.