Module 12: The Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 12: The Endocrine System Deck (37):
1

Water soluble hormones

Amines
Peptides and proteins
Eicosanoids

2

Lipid soluble hormones

Steroid
Thyroid
Gas

3

Amino-based hormones

Consist of proteins or protein derivatives
Most hormones belong to this group
React with receptors on the surface of the cell
Rapid reaction

4

Steroid hormones

Synthesized from cholesterol
Sex hormones and those hormones from the adrenal cortex
React with receptor sites inside a cell
Slow reaction

5

Pituitary gland (hypophysis)

Master gland
Controls the activity of many other endocrine glands
Activity controlled by hypothalamus
Anterior pituitary gland – (adenohypophysis)
Posterior pituitary gland – (neurohypophysis)

6

Hypothalamus

Major link between nervous and endocrine systems

7

Adenohypophysis

Anterior pituitary gland
Secretions regulated by hypothalamus

8

Neurohypophysis

Posterior pituitary gland
Two hormones produced in the hypothalamus and sent into a capillary bed in the neurohypophysis where they are stored and released

9

Growth hormone (GH)

Also called somatotropin
Target: most body tissues
Stimulates growth by promoting protein synthesis

10

Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Also called thyrotropin
Target: thyroid gland
Stimulates production of thyroid hormones

11

Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)

Target: Cortex of the adrenal glands
Stimulates production of hormones in the adrenal cortex

12

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Target: testes and ovaries
Stimulates production of sperm in the male
Stimulates maturation of ova and production of estrogen by the ovaries

13

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Target: reproductive organs
Stimulates the production of testosterone in the testes Stimulates the production of estrogen and progesterone by the ovaries
Also stimulates ovulation

14

Prolactin (PRL)

Target: mammary glands
Stimulates milk production (lactation)

15

Oxytocin

Target: uterus, mammary glands
Stimulates uterine contractions and initiates labor
Stimulates ejection of milk

16

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Also called vasopressin
Target: kidneys
Increases water reabsorption in the kidney to reduce water loss

17

T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine)

Target: most body cells
Regulates energy balance
Increases rate of protein synthesis
Regulates growth
Most T4 is converted to T3 (the more active form) in the target tissues

18

Calcitonin

Target: bone tissue
Regulates calcium blood levels by inhibiting the release of calcium from bone tissue to blood (decreases blood calcium)

19

Parathyroid glands

Four small glands (some individuals have as many as 8) embedded in the posterior thyroid
Have nothing to do with the thyroid gland

20

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Also called parathormone
Target: bones, intestines, kidneys
Increases blood calcium levels

21

Adrenal glands

Located above each kidney
Also called the suprarenal glands
Outside layer (fibrous capsule) is surrounded by a cushion of fat
Two functional layers: cortex and medulla

22

Mineralocorticoids

Secreted by adrenal cortex
Most common is aldosterone
Target: kidneys
Regulate water balance in the body

23

Glucocorticoids

Secreted by adrenal cortex
Most common is cortisol
Target: most cells
Increase blood sugar levels
Inhibit inflammation and immune response

24

Gonadocorticoids (androgens)

Target: ovaries and testicles
Increase female sex drive

25

Epinephrine

Secreted by the adrenal medulla
Also called adrenaline
Target: heart, blood vessels
Coping with stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, blood flow to skeletal muscles, and blood sugar

26

Norepinephrine

Secreted by the adrenal medulla
Also called noradrenaline
Target: heart, blood vessels
Raises blood pressure

27

Insulin

Produced by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans
Target: most cells
Lowers blood glucose by increasing the rate of glucose
transported into the cells

28

Glucagon

Produced by the alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans
Target: liver
Increases blood glucose
Stimulates the liver to convert glycogen (the storage form of glucose in the liver) into the bloodstream

29

Progesterone

Produced in ovaries
Maintains the lining of the uterus in preparation for pregnancy

30

Thymus gland

Site of production of T cells (involved with immunity)
Secretes thymosin, which regulates the development and function of the immune system

31

Pineal gland

Affects biorhythms (rates of secretion of other hormones)
Secretes melatonin

32

Gastrin

Produced in the stomach
Stimulates the release of HCl

33

Intestinal gastrin

Produced in the duodenum (section of the small intestine)
Inhibits the secretion of HCl in the stomach

34

Erythropoietin (EPO)

Produced in kidneys
Stimulates bone marrow to produce red blood cells

35

Cholecalciferol

Produced in epidermal cells
Stimulates active transport of dietary calcium into the bloodstream

36

Leptin

Produced in adipose tissue
Suppresses appetite in response to fatty foods

37

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

Secreted by specialized cells in the upper chambers of the heart
Opposes aldosterone in the kidney
Inhibits the reabsorption of Na+ and water, decreasing blood volume and blood pressure