Module 13: Blood and Blood Vessels Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 13: Blood and Blood Vessels Deck (30):
1

Granulocytes

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils

2

Agranulocytes

Lymphocytes
Monocytes

3

Neutrophils

Engulf foreign material

4

Eosinophils

Combat allergies

5

Basophils

Assist blood clotting

6

Lymphocytes

Produce antibodies

7

Monocytes

Engulf large particles

8

Platelets (thrombocytes)

Fragments of large bone marrow cells called megakaryocytes
Sticky and clump together forming plugs that close torn blood vessels
Lifespan is about 7 days

9

Clot formation processes

Vasoconstriction
Platelet plug formation
Coagulation

10

Platelet plug formation

Platelets are attracted by the collagen in the exposed connective tissue
Platelets adhere to the connective tissue and to each other (platelet plug)

11

Coagulation

If an injury is more severe and a more stable clot is required
Coagulation factors are activated
In the presence of calcium ions, prothrombin is converted to thrombin
Thrombin then converts fibrinogen into fibrin
Fibrin threads then form a mesh that adheres to the damaged tissue and traps blood cells and platelets to form the clot

12

Fibrinolysis

After healing has taken place, the clot is dissolved by specific enzymes that digest fibrin strands and inactivating some of the coagulation factors

13

Vitamin K

Stimulates liver cells to increase the synthesis of prothrombin and other clotting factors

14

Polycythemia

Abnormally high percentage of RBCs

15

Thrombopoetin

Hormone produced by the liver
Stimulates platelet formation

16

Transferrin

Fe3+ transporter

17

Arteries

Transport blood AWAY from the heart
Walls are thicker than the walls of veins
Three layers (tunics)

18

Arterioles

Small arteries
Regulate blood flow from arteries to capillaries
Three layers (tunics)

19

Veins

Transport blood TOWARDS the heart
Three layers (tunics)
Because of low blood pressure in veins located inferior to the heart, veins have valves to prevent backflow of blood

20

Venules

Small veins
Gather blood from capillaries and deliver it to veins
Three layers (tunics) except where they are located close to the capillaries; this is where they have only two layers

21

Capillaries

Microscopic and the smallest of blood vessels
Sites for exchange of gases, nutrients, and wastes products
throughout the body
No layers – only one cell thick (epithelial)
Arterial capillaries contain oxygenated blood
Venous capillaries contain deoxygenated blood

22

Hemophilia

Inability to clot blood

23

Three types of capillaries

Continuous
Fenestrated
Sinusoid

24

Portal vein

Transports blood from one capillary network to another

25

Systole

Ventricular contraction

26

Diastole

Ventricular relaxation

27

Types of shock

Hypovolemic
Cardiogenic
Vascular
Obstructive

28

P wave

First wave
Represents the spread of the impulse from the sinoatrial node (SA node) through the walls of the atria

29

QRS wave

Second wave
Represents the spread of the impulse through the walls of the ventricles and the recovery of the atria after contraction

30

T wave

Third wave
Represents the recovery of the ventricles after contraction