Module 6: Bones and Skeletal Tissue Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology > Module 6: Bones and Skeletal Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 6: Bones and Skeletal Tissue Deck (47):
1

Red bone marrow

Hematopoesis (blood cell production)
Consists of developing blood cells, adipocytes, fibroblasts, macrophages, reticular fibres

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Yellow bone marrow

Triglyceride storage in adipose cells

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Parts of long bone

Diaphysis
Epiphyses
Metaphyses
Articular cartilage
Periosteum
Medullary cavity
Endosteum

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Diaphysis

Main shaft/body of long bone
Mostly compact bone

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Epiphyses

Proximal and distal ends of long bone

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Metaphyses

Between diaphysis and epiphysis

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Epiphyseal plate

Growth plate in metaphysics of growing bone
Layer of hyaline cartilage that allows diaphysis to grow in length

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Epiphyseal line

Cartilage in epiphyseal plate replaced by bone when growth completes

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Articular cartilage

Thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the part of the epiphysis where bone forms an articulation (joint) with another bone
Reduces friction and absorbs shock

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Periosteum

Tough connective tissue sheath and associated blood supply
Surrounds bone surface not covered by articular cartilage
Protects, assists in repair and nourishment, attachment for ligaments and tendons

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Outer fibrous layer of periosteum

Dense connective tissue

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Inner osteogenic layer of periosteum

Consists of cells - some enable growth in thickness but not length

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Perforating (Sharpey's) fibers

Thick collagen bundles attaching periosteum to bone matrix

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Endosteum

Thin membrane that lines medullary cavity
Single layer of bone-forming cells
Small amount of connective tissue

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Four types of bone tissue cells

Osteogenic, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes

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Osteogenic cells

Unspecialized bone stem cells
Only bone cells that undergo cell division

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Osteoblasts

Bone building cells
Synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other ECM components
Initiate calcification
-blast = build

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Osteocytes

Mature bone cells embedded in matrix
Main cells in bone tissue
Maintain daily metabolism

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Osteoclasts

Huge cells derived from fusion or monocytes
Concentrated in endosteum
Resorption (breakdown of bone ECM)
Release stored minerals into body tissue
-clast = carve

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Osteon (Haversian system)

Microscopic unit of compact bone

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Central canal (Haversian canal)

Contains blood vessels and nerve cells

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Lamellae

Form circular rings of matrix
Osteocytes located in lacunae between rings

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Lacunae

"Little lakes"
Between thin sheets of calcified matrix

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Canaliculi

Interconnecting channels
Join lacunae with each other and with nearby blood vessels

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Volkmann’s canals

Also called perforating canals
Connect the blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to those in the central canals and medullary cavity

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Trabeculae

"Little beams"
Make the spongy bone look like “Swiss cheese.”
Decrease the weight of the bone and provide the spaces where red bone marrow is found

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Interstitial lamellae

Between osteons
Fragments of older osteons

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Wolff's Law

Bone will grow or remodel in response to stress, muscle activity, fracture repair, excess weight, etc

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Endochondrial ossification

Osteoblasts replace hyaline cartilage with bone tissue

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Steps of endochondrial ossification

Development of cartilage model
Growth of cartilage model
Development of primary ossification centre
Development of medullary cavity
Development of secondary ossification centres
Formation of articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate

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Incomplete fracture

Greenstick fracture
Break almost extends across entire section of bone, but it still has pieces of the bone partially joined together and bent
Only in children whose bones are not fully ossified

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Open (compound) fracture

Broken end of the bone protrudes through the skin
Risk of infection

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Closed (simple) fracture

Broken bone does not extend through the skin
Less chance of bacterial invasion

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Transverse fracture

Bone is broken at right angles to the long axis of the bone

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Comminuted fracture

Bone is crushed into small pieces

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Oblique fracture

Bone is broken on a slant

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Impacted fracture

One end of fractured bone forcefully driven into interior end of the other

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Stress fracture

Series of microscopic fissures without evidence of injury to other tissues
Results from repeated, strenuous activities or osteoporosis

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Pott fracture

Fracture of distal end of lateral leg bone (fibula)

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Colles' fracture

Fracture of distal end of the lateral forearm bone (radius) in which distal fragment is displaced posteriorly

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Closed reduction

Physical manipulation of fracture without surgery

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Open reduction

Surgery to realign fractured bone fragments

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Steps of fracture repair

Formation of fracture hematoma
Fibrocartilaginous callus formation
Bony callus formation
Bone remodelling

44

Hyaline cartilage

Most abundant skeletal cartilage
Provides support with flexibility and resistance

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Complete fracture

Break extends across entire section of bone

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Intramembranous ossification

Osteoblasts replace thin connective tissue membrane with bone tissue
Flat, skull bones, facial bones, mandible (lower jawbone) and medial part of clavicle

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Steps of intramembranous ossification

Development of ossification centre (osteoblasts secrete ECM)
Calcification
Trabeculae formation
Periosteum development