Quiz 1 (Chapters 1-5) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 1 (Chapters 1-5) Deck (119):
1

Ventral

Toward the front of the body, anterior

2

Dorsal

Toward the back of the body, posterior

3

Superior

Toward the head or upper part

4

Inferior

Away from the head

5

Proximal

Closer to the point of origin

6

Distal

Farther from the origin

7

Sagittal plane

Divides left and right

8

Transverse plane

Divides superior and inferior

9

Oblique plane

Diagonal (any angle other than 90 degrees)

10

Feedback systems

Corrective cycles that help restore the conditions needed for healthy life

11

Radiographic anatomy

Study of body structures that can be visualized with x-rays

12

Four types of tissues

Epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous

13

Organizational levels of the human body

Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal

14

Auscultation

Listening to body sounds to evaluate the functioning of certain organs

15

Percussion

Tapping on body surface with fingertips and listening to the resulting echo

16

Catabolism

Breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler components

17

Anabolism

Building up of complex chemical substances from smaller, simpler components

18

3 components of a feedback system

Receptor, control center, effector

19

Afferent pathway

Information flows toward control center

20

Efferent pathway

Information flows away from control center

21

Disorder

Any abnormality of structure or function

22

Disease

Illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms

23

Local disease

Affects one part or a limited region of the body

24

Systemic disease

Affects entire body or several parts

25

Symptom

Subjective changes not apparent to the observer such as headache, nausea, anxiety

26

Sign

Objective, observable changes

Physiological - fever, high blood pressure

Anatomical - swelling or rash

27

Prone position

Lying face down

28

Cephalic

Head

29

Cranial

Skull

30

Axillary

Armpit

31

Brachial

Arm

32

Antecubital

Front of elbow

33

Antebrachial

Forearm

34

Carpal

Wrist

35

Palmar/volar

Palm

36

Digital/phalangeal

Fingers or toes

37

Crural

Leg

38

Pedal

Foot

39

Tarsal

Ankle

40

Otic

Ear

41

Mental

Chin

42

Coxal

Hip

43

Inguinal

Groin

44

Manual

Hand

45

Pollex

Thumb

46

Dorsum

Top of foot or back of hand

47

Hallux

Great toe

48

Acromial

Shoulder

49

Olecranal or cubital

Back of elbow

50

Popliteal

Hollow behind knee

51

Sural

Calf

52

Lumbar

Loin

53

Ipsilateral

On the same side

54

Contralateral

On the opposite side

55

Parasagittal plane

Divides into unequal left and right sides (para=near)

56

Frontal or coronal plane

Divides into anterior and posterior portions

57

Viscera

Organs inside the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

58

Serous membrane

Double-layered membrane that covers the viscera and lines the walls of the thorax and abdomen

59

Axial region

Head, neck, trunk

60

Appendicular region

Upper and lower limbs

61

Dorsal cavity

Cranial and spinal cavities

62

Ventral cavity

Thoracic and abdominopelvic cavites

63

Chromatin

Complex network of threads containing DNA

Forms into chromosomes

64

Hypertonic

Solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than the cell

65

Hypotonic

Solution that has a lower concentration of solutes than the cell

66

Basal Lamina

Thin, supporting sheet at the inferior of the epithelium    

67

Apical

Free or open

68

Collagen fibers

Flexible and strong

Most abundant protein in the body

Found in bone and cartilage 

69

Elastic fibers

Made of protein called elastin

Not as strong as collagen

Return to their natural shape and length after being stretched

Found in the skin, walls of blood vessels, and lung tissue 

70

Reticular fibers

Composed of collagen but are arranged differently than collagen fibers

Thin

Provides an excellent framework for soft organs such as glands and lymph nodes 

71

Types of loose connective tissue

Areolar

Adipose

Reticular

72

Areolar connective tissue

Most widely dispersed connective tissue

Found beneath epithelial tissues, in cavities, and between muscles

Binds organs together giving strength, elasticity, and support 

73

Adipose connective tissue

Fat tissue found under the skin, around the kidneys and within abdomen and kidneys

Protection, insulation, support, and a place to store energy 

74

Reticular connective tissue

Found in the spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow

Defends the body by filtering out microorganisms and other substances 

75

Types of dense connective tissue

Dense regular

Dense irregular

Elastic

76

Dense regular connective tissue

Tendons and ligaments

Provides tensile strength and flexibility for anchoring 

77

Tendon

Anchors muscles to bones

78

Ligament

Anchors bones to bones

79

Dense irregular connective tissue

Forms the dermis (inner skin layer) and outer layer of the kidney and spleen

Withstands stresses applied from any direction 

80

Elastic connective tissue

Found in the walls of arteries

Provides strength with stretching 

81

Hyaline cartalige tissue

Most abundant cartilage

Found in the ends of long bones, the larynx, the nose, and between the sternum and the ribs

Provides support with flexibility

Absorbs shock in joints 

82

Fibrocartilage

Found in the intervertebral discs, knees, between pubic bones

Provides protection and cushions body parts 

83

Elastic cartilage

Found in the external ear and the epiglottis

Support and framework 

84

Fibrosis

Replacement of injured tissue by the formation of fibrous connective tissue – scar tissue

Very strong but it lacks flexibility and elasticity

Not able to carry out the normal functions of the tissue it has replaced 

85

Steps of tissue repair

Inflammation - stimulates immune system

Organization - restores blood supply, replaces damaged cells

Regeneration and fibrosis - repaired tissue remodels itself

86

Visceral membrane

Covers organs

87

Parietal membrane

Lines body cavity

88

Tight junctions

Weblike strands of transmembrane proteins that fuse together outer surfaces of adjacent plasma membranes

89

Desmosomes

Have plaque and transmembrane glycoproteins (cadherins) that extend into intercellular space and attach cells to each other

90

Sudoriferous glands

Sweat glands

91

Apocrine glands

Sweat glands found primarily in the axillary and anogenital areas

Activated during puberty

Secretions same as eccrine plus proteins and fatty acids

92

Ceruminous glands

Modified apocrine glands found in the external ear canal secreting cerumen or ear wax

93

First degree burns

Damage only to the epidermis

Symptoms include pain, swelling and redness

94

Second degree burns

Damage to the epidermis and the upper region of the dermis

Symptoms are the same as first degree burns but also include blistering

95

Third degree burns

Damage to the entire thickness of skin - burned area appears gray, white, red or blackened. Initially there is little or no swelling and no pain

96

Dermis

"True skin"

Beneath epidermis

Hair follicles and sweat glands

97

Hypodermis

Subcutaneous (below, not part of skin)

Areolar and adipose tissues 

98

Types of epidermal cells

Keratinocytes
Melanocytes
Langerhans cells
Merkel cells

99

Keratinocytes 

~90% of epidermal cells
4-5 layers
Produce keratin and lamellar granules

100

Lamellar granules

Release water-repellant (lipid-rich) sealant to decrease water entry/loss and prevent entry of foreign material 

101

Langerhans cells

Also call epidermal dendritic cells
Participate in immune response against microbes by helping other cells recognize and destroy them
Easily damaged by UV

102

Merkel cells

Least numerous 
In deepest layer of epidermis 
Contact with Merkel disc to detect touch sensation

103

Merkel (tactile) disc

Flattened process of a nerve cell

104

Four strata (layers) of epidermis 

Stratum basale
Stratum spinosum
Stratum granulosum
Thin stratum corneum (thin skin)

105

Thick stratum corneum (thick skin)

Fifth layer of skin
In areas like fingertips, palms, and soles where friction exposure is greatest

106

Stratum basale

Single row of cuboidal or columnar keratinocytes

Scattered keratin intermediate filaments

Contains some stem cells

Melanocytes and Merkel cells are in this layer

107

Stratum spinosum

Superficial to stratum basale

8-10 layers of keratinocytes

Spinelike projections with keratin intermediate filaments which connect to desmosome - strenth and flexibility

Langerhans cells and melanocyte projections are in this layer

108

Stratum granulosum

~middle of epidermis

3-5 layers of flattened keratinocytes in apoptosis

Contain keratohyalin and lamellar granules

109

Keratohyalin

Darkly staining protein granules

Converts keratin intermediate filaments into keratin

110

Stratum lucidum

Only present in thick skin in areas like fingertips, palms, soles

4-6 layers of flattened clear, dead keratinocytes with large amounts of keratin and thick plasma membranes

111

Stratum corneum

25-30 layers of flattened dead keratinocytes

Contain mostly keratin, no nuclei or organelles

Cells overlap like scales, fit together like puzzle pieces

112

Keratinization

Cells accumulate more keratin as they move through the epidermal layers

Takes 4-6 weeks in epidermis of average (0.1mm) thickness

113

Characteristics of connective tissue

Common embryonic origin

Vascular except cartilage

Extracellular matrix

114

Papillary layer of dermis

Papillae (projections) extend into epidermis - form fingerprints and footprints

Blood vessels, nerve endings, sensory receptors

115

Reticular layer of dermis

Strong part of dermis

Attached to hypodermis

116

Sudoriferous glands

Sweat glands

~3 million

Found in dermal regions

Apocrine and eccrine glands

117

Eccrine glands

Sweat glands not associated with hair follicles

Function throughout lifetime

Especially numerous on forehead, upper lip, palms, soles 

118

Hair

Grows ~1mm/3days

Protection

Shaft, root, and medulla

119

Nails

Epidermal cells that have been converted to keratin

Free edge, nail body (visible part), and nail root