Module 7: The Skeleton and Joints Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology > Module 7: The Skeleton and Joints > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 7: The Skeleton and Joints Deck (91):
1

Facial bones

2 nasal - nose
2 maxillae - upper lip
1 mandible - jaw
2 zygomatic - cheek bones
2 lacrimal
2 palatine
2 inferior nasal conchae
1 vomer
= 14 total

2

Hyoid bone

Only bone that does not joint (articulate) with another
Provides movable base for tongue

3

Ear bones

2 malleus - hammer
2 incus - anvil
2 stapes - stirrup

4

Surface markings

Structural features of bone adapted for certain functions
Usually not present at birth, most prominent in adults
Develop on response to certain forces

5

Types of surface markings

Depressions and openings
Processes

6

Depressions and openings

Type of surface marking that allows passage of soft tissues or forms joints

7

Processes

Projections or outgrowths that either help form joints or serve as attachment point for connective tissue

8

Fissure

Narrow slit between adjacent parts of bones through which blood vessels or nerves pass

9

Foramen

Opening through which blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments pass

10

Fossa

Shallow depression

11

Sulcus

Furrow along bone surface that accommodates blood vessel, nerve, or tendon

12

Meatus

Tubelike opening

13

Cranial bones

1 frontal - forehead
2 parietal - top and sides of skull
2 temporal - temple region
1 occipital - rear of the skull
1 sphenoid
1 ethmoid
= 8 total

13

Types of depressions and openings

Fissure
Foramen
Fossa
Sulcus
Meatus

14

Types of processes that form joints

Condyle
Facet
Head

15

Condyle

Large round protuberance with a smooth articulate surface at end of bone

16

Facet

Smooth, flat, slightly concave or convex articular surface

17

Head

Usually rounded articular projection supported on neck (constricted portion) of bone

18

Processes that form attachment points for connective tissue

Crest
Epicondyle
Line
Spinous process
Trochanter
Tubercle
Tuberosity

19

Crest

Prominent ridge or elongated projection

21

Epicondyle

Typically roughened projection above condyle

22

Line

Long narrow ridge or border (less prominent than crest)

23

Spinous process

Sharp slender projection

24

Trochanter

Very large projection

25

Tubercle

Variably sized rounded projection

26

Tuberosity

Variably sized projection that has a rough, bumpy surface

27

Metopic suture

Unites left and right sides of frontal bone after birth
Disappears around age 6-8

28

Coronal suture

Between frontal and parietal bones

29

Sagittal suture

Between parietal bones

30

Lambdoid suture

Between parietal and occipital bones

31

Squamous suture

Between temporal and parietal bone

32

Sphenoid bone

At middle part of base of skull
Articulates with all other cranial bones
Resembles a butterfly

33

Ethmoid bone

In anterior part of cranial floor
Medial to the orbits
Sponge-like appearance
Anterior to sphenoid and posterior to nasal bones

34

Inferior nasal conchae

Form part of inferior lateral wall of nasal cavity
Project into nasal cavity

35

Vomer

Triangular
In floor of nasal cavity
Forms inferior portion of bony nasal septum

36

Maxillae

Paired, form upper jawbone

37

Zygomatic bones

Cheekbones

38

Mandible

Lower jawbone

39

7 bones of the orbit

3 cranial - frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid
4 facial - palatine, zygomatic, lacrimal, maxilla

40

Foramina

Openings for blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments

41

Fontanels

Mesenchyme-filled spaces between cranial bones
Present at birth
Eventually replaced with bone
"Soft spots"

42

Vertebrae in adults

7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
= 26 total

43

Sacrum

Consists of 5 fused sacral bones

44

Coccyx

Consists of 4 fused coccygeal vertebrae

45

Annulus fibrosis

Outer fibrous ring of fibrocartilage of intervertebral discs

46

Nucleus pulposus

Inner, soft, pulpy, elastic substance of intervertebral discs

47

Osteophytes

Bony growths around intervertebral discs

48

Parts of sternum

Manubrium
Body
Xiphoid process

49

Bones of pectoral girdle

Clavicle
Scapula

50

Acromioclavicular joint

Scapula and clavicle

51

Glenohumeral joint

Scapula and humerus

52

Pelvic girdle

Hip bones

53

Pubic symphysis

Anterior joint between hips

54

Sacroiliac joints

Join sacrum to hip

55

Bones in hip

Ilium
Ischium
Pubis

56

Criteria for joint classification

Presence or absence of space (synovial cavity)
Type of connective tissue in the joint

57

Fibrous joints

Dense irregular connective tissue rich in collagen fibers
No synovial cavity
Mostly immovable

58

Types of fibrous joints

Sutures
Syndesmoses
Interosseous membranes

59

Cartilaginous joints

Bones are joined by cartilage tissue
No synovial cavity

60

Types of cartilaginous joints

Synchondroses
Symphyses - ex. fibrocartilage in pubic symphysis between anterior pelvic bones

61

Synovial joints

Bones are separated by a fluid-containing cavity
Most joints in the body

62

Synarthrosis

Immovable joint
Held together by dense fibrous connective tissue
Ex: suture joints in skull

63

Amphiarthrosis

Slightly movable joint
Separated by cartilage
Sample location: pubic symphysis, vertebrae

64

Diarthrosis

Freely movable joint (capable of a wide range of movements)
Also called synovial joints
Sample location: shoulder joint

65

Synostosis

Bony joint
Complete fusion of two bones into one
Classified as synarthrosis since it is immovable

66

Syndesmosis

Greater distance between articulating surfaces
More dense irregular connective tissue than in a suture
Connective tissue arranged in bundle (ligament)
ex. distal ends to tibia and fibula

67

Gomphoses

Example of syndesmosis
Only where tooth fits into socket via a ligament

68

Interosseous membranes

Sheet of dense irregular connective tissue that binds neighbouring long bones and permits slight movement
Between radius and ulna, tibia and fibula

69

Synchondrosis

Cartilaginous joint with hyaline cartilage
Ex. epiphyseal plate in growing bone
Immovable
When bone replaces the cartilage, becomes synostosis

70

Symphysis

Cartilaginous joint where ends of bone are covered with hyaline, flat disc of fibrocartilage connects the bones
All symphyses are on the midline of the body

71

Structures of synovial joints

Articular cartilage
Joint capsule
Synovial membrane
Synovial fluid

72

Articular cartilage

Surface of each end of the joining bones is covered with smooth articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage)
Reduces friction and helps absorb shock

73

Joint capsule

Made of fibrous connective tissue
Encloses the joint in a strong sleeve-like covering

74

Synovial membrane

Line inner surfaces of the joint cavity
Secretes synovial fluid into the joint cavity

75

Synovial fluid

Lubricant to help reduce friction

76

Flexion

Bending of a joint that decreases the angle between the bones
Example: bending your knee

77

Extension

Straightening of a joint so that the angle between the bones increases
Example: straightening your knee

78

Plantar flexion

Pointing your toe

79

Dorsiflexion

Lifting your foot up towards your leg

80

Abduction

Movement away from the midline of the body
Ex. lifting your arm sideways, away from your body

81

Adduction

Movement towards the midline of the body
Ex. return your arm towards your body

82

Inversion

Turning the sole of your foot inward so that it faces the opposite foot

83

Eversion

Turning the sole of your foot outward, away from your body

84

Supination

Turning your hand so that the palm faces upward

85

Pronation

Turning your hand so that the palm faces downward

86

Circumduction

Combination of movements
Ex. the circular arm movement that a softball pitcher makes

87

Plane joint

Flat or slightly curved
Wrist bones, ankle bones

88

Hinge joint

Convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another
Elbows, interphalangeal joints

89

Pivot joints

Rounded or pointed surface of one bone articulates with a ring partly by another bone and partly by a ligament
Proximal radioulnar joints (where the radius and ulna meet at the elbow)

90

Condyloid joints

Convex oval-shaped projection of one bone fits into oval-shaped depression of another
Metacarpophalangeal joints (knuckles - where the hand bones and finger bones meet)

91

Saddle joints

Bones fit together like a rider on a saddle
Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb (where the thumb meets the wrist)