Module 17: The Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 17: The Digestive System Deck (35):
1

Mesentery

A fold of peritoneum that attaches the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall

2

Mesocolon

A fold of peritoneum that attaches the colon to the posterior abdominal wall

3

Falciform ligament

A fold of peritoneum that attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm
Also separates the liver into two lobes

4

Greater omentum

Also called the “fatty apron”
Hangs from the stomach and covers the transverse colon and the small intestine

5

Lesser omentum

A fold of peritoneum that suspends the stomach and the duodenum from the liver

6

Mucosa

Inner layer of alimentary canal
Protection
Secretion of enzymes, mucus, and hormones
Absorption of nutrients
Layer of smooth muscle cells produces movements of the mucosa
Pulls the mucous membrane of the small intestine into folds (called plicae circularis) increasing surface area

7

Submucosa

Connective tissue that binds the mucosa to the muscularis
Contains blood and lymphatic vessels, lymph nodules, and nerve fibers

8

Muscularis

Consists of an inner layer of circular smooth muscle and an outer layer of longitudinal smooth muscle
Mixes (segmentation) and propels (peristalsis) food and water along the digestive tract
The circular layer of smooth muscle form valves (sphincters) in specific areas of the tract

9

Serosa

Visceral peritoneum
Consists of areolar connective tissue covered with simple squamous epithelium
Protection

10

Amylase

Enzyme secreted by parotid glands
Produced in pancreas
Helps digest starch

11

Cardiac sphincter

Lower esophageal sphincter
Controls passage from esophagus to stomach

12

Oblique layer

Third layer of digestive tract
Only in stomach
Provides churning motion

13

Pyloric sphincter

Valve between stomach and duodenum

14

Mucous neck cells

Secrete mucous which is acidic and very different from the protective mucous secreted by the surface epithelium

15

Chief cells

Secrete mainly the enzymes pepsinogen (breaks up proteins) and some lipase (breaks up fats)

16

Parietal cells

Secrete hydrochloric acid (maintains the pH of stomach contents and kills bacteria) and intrinsic factor (necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12)

17

Enteroendocrine cells

Release chemical messengers that stimulate the release of gastrin
Regulate gastric juice secretion

18

Bile

From the liver, stored in the gallbladder
Helps digest fats

19

Lipase

From the pancreas
Helps digest fats

20

Proteases

From the pancreas
Help digest proteins

21

Crypts of Lieberkuhn

Glands in small intestine
Screte enzymes that chemically digest proteins and carbohydrates

22

Peyer’s Patches

Clumps of lymphoid follicles found in abundance toward the end of the small intestine

23

Ileocecal valve

Connects the ileum to the first part of the large intestine
Prevents feces from reentering the small intestine

24

Functions of the large intestine

Absorption of water and electrolytes
Synthesis of vitamin K and certain B vitamins by intestinal bacteria
Elimination of feces (defecation)

25

Functions of the liver

Manufacture bile for the breakdown of lipids in the duodenum. This breakdown is necessary before lipase can finish the job.

26

Acinar cells of the pancreas

Secrete digestive enzymes into tiny ducts, which eventually merge to form the main pancreatic duct

27

Pancreatic ducts

Joins the common bile duct to form a single point of entry into the duodenum

28

Pepsin and trypsin

Pepsin - in stomach
Trypsin - in small intestine
Break proteins into shorter chains (peptides)

29

Pepsidase

Breaks peptides into amino acids

30

Brush border enzymes

Break the nucleotides down to the component parts – pentose, phosphate, and nitrogenous bases

31

Splanchnic circulation

Arteries branching off the abdominal aorta serving the digestive organs

32

Peristalsis

Involuntary waves of contraction and relaxation that move substances through hollow body organs

33

Segmentation

Movement of chyme backward and forward over the intestinal wall to allow maximum nutrient absorption

34

Papillae

Small peg-like projections

35

Mastication

Chewing